The human body as well as that of other animals (Species) is highly structured into organs and tissues which serve specific functions. Tissue is the organizational level intermediate between cells and organs system which compose the whole organism. All the tissues and cell types defined in an animal organism are hierarchical structured and shall be fully described. o

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  • name description synonyms
    pineal body The pineal gland (also called the pineal body, epiphysis cerebri, epiphysis, conarium or the "third eye") is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions. Its shape resembles a tiny pine cone (hence its name), and it is located near the centre of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two rounded thalamic bodies join [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pineal_gland].
    habenular nucleus The gray matter of the habenula, composed of a small-celled medial and a larger-celled lateral habenular nucleus; both nuclei receive fibres from basal forebrain regions (septum, basal nucleus, lateral preoptic nucleus); the lateral habenular nucleus receives an additional projection from the medial segment of the globus pallidus. Both nuclei project by way of the retroflex fasciculus to the interpeduncular nucleus and a medial zone of the midbrain tegmentum [Brenda].
    subthalamus The subthalamus is a part of the diencephalon. Its major part is the subthalamic nucleus. Functionally, it also encompasses the globus pallidus, which is topographically part of the telencephalon [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subthalamus].
    subthalamic nucleus A biconvex mass of gray matter on the medial side of the junction of the internal capsule and the crus cerebri; its chief connections are with the globus pallidus [Brenda].
    hypothalamus The ventral part of the diencephalon that forms the floor and part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle. Anatomically, it includes the preoptic area, optic tract, optic chiasm, mammillary bodies, tuber cinereum, infundibulum, and neurohypophysis, but for physiological purposes the neurohypophysis is considered a distinct structure. The hypothalamus may be divided into five regions or areas (area hypothalamica rostralis, area hypothalamica dorsalis, area hypothalamica intermedia, area hypothalamica lateralis and area hypothalamica posterior) or into three longitudinal zones (periventricular zone, medial zone, and lateral zone). The hypothalamic nuclei constitute that part of the corticodiencephalic mechanism that activates, controls and integrates the peripheral autonomic mechanisms, endocrine activity, and many somatic functions, e.g., a general regulation of water balance, body temperature, sleep, and food intake, and the development of secondary sex characteristics. The hypothalamus secretes vasopressin and oxytocin, which are stored in the pituitary, as well as many releasing factors (hypophysiotropic hormones), by means of which it exerts control over functions of the adenohypophysis [Brenda].
    preoptic nucleus The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus. According to the MeSH classification, it is considered part of the anterior hypothalamus. There are four nuclei in this region, according to Terminologia Anatomica (Medial, Median, Lateral, and Paraventricular) [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preoptic_area].
    supraoptic nucleus A sharply defined nucleus of nerve cells in the anterior hypothalamic region, immediately above the lateral part of the optic chiasm; many of its cells are neurosecretory in function, secreting vasopressin, which is carried to the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) by the fibers of the supraopticohypophysial tract; other cells are osmoreceptors, which respond to increased osmotic pressure to signal the release of vasopressin by the neurohypophysis [Brenda].
    suprachiasmatic nucleus A small group of neurons situated immediately dorsal to the optic chiasma in the anterior hypothalamus [Brenda].
    anatomical site A defined structural or conceptional component of an organism [Daniel Wuttke].
    paraventricular nucleus The nucleus paraventricularis anterior thalami and nuclues paraventricularis posterior thalami, two of the nuclei mediani thalami; they are situated on the dorsomedial wall of the thalamus, juxtaposed to the third ventricle [Brenda].
    head and neck Head and neck anatomy focuses on the structures of the head and neck of the human body, including the brain, bones, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, glands, nose, mouth, teeth, tongue, and throat. It is an area frequently studied in depth by surgeons, dentists, dental technicians, and speech language pathologists [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Head_and_neck_anatomy].
    infundibular nucleus A nucleus of nerve cells in the posterior hypothalamic region, extending into the median eminence and almost entirely surrounding the base of the infundibulum [Brenda].
    thorax 1: The part of the mammalian body between the neck and the abdomen; also: its cavity in which the heart and lungs lie.n2: The middle of the three chief divisions of the body of an insect; also: the corresponding part of a crustacean or an arachnid [Brenda].
    thoracic wall The thoracic wall (or chest wall) is the boundary of the thoracic cavity. The bony portion is known as the thoracic cage. However, the wall also includes muscle, skin, and fascia [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thoracic_wall].
    dorsomedial nucleus The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. It is involved in feeding, drinking, body-weight regulation and circadian activity [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorsomedial_hypothalamic_nucleus].
    abdomen 1: The part of the body between the thorax and the pelvis; also: the cavity of this part of the trunk containing the chief viscera.n2: The posterior section of the body behind the thorax in an arthropod [Brenda].
    ventromedial nucleus The ventromedial nucleus (sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus or VMH) is a nucleus of the hypothalamus [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventromedial_nucleus].
    pelvis The inferior portion of the trunk of the body, bounded anteriorly and laterally by the two hip bones and posteriorly by the sacrum and coccyx. The pelvis is divided by a plane passing through the terminal lines into the pelvis major superiorly and the pelvis minor inferiorly [Brenda].
    perineum In human anatomy, the perineum (Late Latin, from Greek περίνεος - perineos) is a region of the body including the perineal body and surrounding structures. There is some variability in how the boundaries are defined, but the term generally includes the genitals and anus [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perineum].
    upper limb The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in an animal extending from the deltoid region to the hand, including the arm, axilla and shoulder [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_limb].
    lower limb The lower limb is a limb of the body [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower_limb]. According to Terminologia Anatomica, it includes the pelvic girdle, buttocks, hip, and thigh, as well as the components distal to the knee [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower_limb].
    tuberomamillary nucleus The tuber cinereum is a hollow eminence of gray matter situated between the mammillary bodies and the optic chiasm. The tuber cinereum is part of the hypothalamus [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuber_cinereum].
    whole body The main part of an animal body especially as distinguished from limbs and head [Brenda].
    adipose tissue Connective tissue in which fat is stored and which has the cells distended by droplets of fat [Brenda].
    mucosa A membrane lining all body passages that communicate with the air, such as the respiratory and alimentary tracts, and having cells and associated glands that secrete mucus [Brenda].
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