Factors

We need to know every factor which determines lifespan.

Lifespan factors often but not always originate from defined genetic elements. They are not just genes, by definition they can be anything for which a Classifications schema can be build for that is related to the regulation of lifespan, such entities may include Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism, transcript variants, proteins and their complexes, compounds (i.e. small molecules like metabolites and drugs), etc. A factor should be based on a defined molecular entity or genomic position and been classified. It shall be highly flexible and scalable Concept.

While individual lifespan factors within each species or precise defined molecular entities will be captured within the Lifespan App, Data Entries of the Data App may summarize for instance the relevance of each factor class (e.g. homologous group; chemical derivate of related structure and properties, etc.) as well as draw overall conclusions. o

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  • symbol name observation species
    MIR155 microRNA 155 mir-155 is significantly overexpressed in human breast cancer while targeting the miRNA could induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as well as inhibit cell growth. [18719391]. Mir155 acts by repressing socs1, a tumor suppressor. In addition, inflammatory signals may activate miR155, thus suggesting that the miRNA serves as a link between inflammation and malignancy formation [20354188]. It is also upregulated in lung cancer and acts an oncogene by targeting Apaf1 and thus reducing apoptosis rate [22996741]. Inhibition of mir-155 radiosensitizes cancer cells [22027557]. Human
    MIR27A microRNA 27a MIR27A can be both a tumor-suppressor and an oncogene. For instance, the expression of miR-27a is significantly lower in acute leukemia compared to normal cells. It has been shown that miRNA-27a inhibits cell growth and promotes apoptosis by targeting 14-3-3θ, a member of 14-3-3 family of anti-apoptotic proteins. [23236401]. Therefore, it acts as a tumor-suppressor in leukemia. However, in gastric cancer mir-27a acts as an oncogene by targeting inhibiting and thus promoting cancer cell growth [18789835]. Human
    miR152 microRNA 152 MiR152 belongs to miR148/152 cluster and can act as a tumor-suppressor. In ovarian cancer, miR152 suppresses DNMT1 directly and inhibits proliferation of cancer cells. [23318422] The miRNA is downregulated in ovarian cancer cells lines and its downregulation may lead to deregulation of cell proliferation in ovarian cancer. [21971665] Human
    miR148b microRNA 148b Mir148b belongs to mir148/152 cluster and acts as a tumor-suppressor in certain types of cancer. As a result of a study of miR148b expression in gastric cancer it has been determined that in 62 percent of cases, in tumor tissue miRNA was downregulated compared to adjacent non-tumor tissue. MiR148b suppresses tumorigenecity by targeting CCKBR, whose action is to mediate the function of gastrin, which has proliferative effects. |21205300] In addition, while miR148b is downregulated in pancreatic cancer tissues, its overexpression inhibits invasion and increases chemosensitivity [23171948]. Human
    miR148a microRNA 148a miR148a belongs to miR148-152 cluster and acts as a tumor-suppressor in different types of cancer. MiR148a expression is suppressed more than 4-fold in gastric cancer. An inverse correlation has been observed between miR148a expression and lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. Mir148a suppresses migratory abilities of cancer cells and metastasis formation by downregulating the oncogene ROCK1 expression [21994419]. miR148a is downregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). it has been shown that miR148a directly targets the 3'UTR region of CDC25B mRNA. CDC25B is a phosphatase that, by activating a cyclin-CDK complex, initiates mitosis, therefore CDC25B suppression by miR148a could have a tumor-suppressor effect on PDAC. [21709669] Human
    hsa-let-7c microRNA let-7c let-7c is downregulated in prostate cancer, which increases cell proliferation [22479342]. More specifically, let-7c is a regulator of androgen receptor (AR), which plays a role in the development of prostate cancer [22128178]. Human
    hsa-let-7b microRNA let-7b Let-7b, a member of the let-7 group, appears to be a tumor-suppressor. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, let-7b is severely downregulated and its overexpression inhibits cancer cells growth [22918121]. In melanoma cells, the miRNA downregulates the expression of cell cycle regulators such as cyclin D1, D3, and A and Cdk4, which inhibits cell cycle progression. [18379589] Human
    hsa-let-7a microRNA let-7a A tumor-suppressor downregulated in different types of cancer. Let-7a binds to 3'-UTR region of RAB40C, thus leading to a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase of G1 arrest in human gastric carcinomas [20809749, 21349817]. In human breast cancer, evidence suggests that members of let-7 family inhibit breast cancer cell migration by targeting genes responsible for actin dynamics [23339187]. Moreover, let-7a directly targets CCR7, a receptor that promotes invasiveness of cancer cells [23335963] Human
    MIR145 microRNA 145 MIR145 is a tumor suppressor that acts by inhibiting IRS-1 in human colon cancer cells. It also targets IGFR1 [17827156; 19391107]. It decreases cell migration in gliomas by targeting CTGF, metastasis and migration-promoting gene. MIR145 is downregulated in astrocytic tumors and oligodendrogliomas [23390502; 23577178]. Human
    MIR16-1 microRNA16-1 MIR16-1 is a tumor-suppressor downregulated in different types of cancers. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) it is downregulated in 68% of cases [12434020]. MIR16-1 may post-transcriptionally downregulate the expression of Bcl2, thus inducing apoptosis. Therefore, inactivation of MIR15A and MIR16-1 in CLL lymphocytes results in a reduced apoptosis rate [16166262]. In prostate cancer, MIR15A and MIR16-1 are downregulated, which results in decreased repression of FGF-2, thus promoting tumor expansion and invasiveness [21532615]. MIR15A and MIR16-1 are also downregulated in pituitary adenomas as thier expression exhibits an inverse correlation with tumor diameter, therefore possible influence on tumor growth [15648093]. Human
    MIR15A microRNA 15a MIR15A is a tumor-suppressor downregulated in different types of cancers. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) it is downregulated in 68% of cases [12434020]. MIR15A may post-transcriptionally downregulate the expression of Bcl2, thus inducing apoptosis. Therefore, inactivation of MIR15A and MIR16-1 in CLL lymphocytes results in a reduced apoptosis rate [16166262]. In prostate cancer, MIR15A and MIR16-1 are downregulated, which results in decreased repression of FGF-2, thus promoting tumor expansion and invasiveness [21532615]. MIR15A and MIR16-1 are also downregulated in pituitary adenomas as thier expression exhibits an inverse correlation with tumor diameter, therefore possible influence on tumor growth [15648093]. Human
    mir-277 Constitutive miR-277 expression shortens lifespan and synthetically lethal with reduced insulin signaling, indicating that metabolic control underlies this phenotype. Transgenic inhibition with a miRNA sponge construct also shortens lifespan [23669073]. miR-277 is downregulated during adult life [23669073]. mir-277 controls branched-chain amino acid catabolism and as a result it can modulate the activity of TOR kinase [23669073]. Fruit fly
    Mir669c microRNA 669c Expression increases with age in mouse liver. The miRNA downregulates detoxification and regeneration genes, which may contribute to aging [18561983]. House mouse
    miR-214 microRNA 214 Expression increases with age in mouse liver. The miRNA downregulates detoxification and regeneration genes, which may contribute to aging [18561983]. House mouse
    Mir34a microRNA mir-34a Increases in aging rat liver, which suppresses the expression of such proteins as Sirt1 and Mgst1, resulting in dysfunction of oxidative stress defense and regulation [21216258] Norway rat
    Mir93 microRNA mir-93 Increases in Aging rat Liver, which suppresses the expression of such proteins as Sirt1 and Mgst1, resulting in dysfunction of oxidative stress defense and regulation [21216258] Norway rat
    Mir27a MicroRNA 27a In Ames dwarf mice (which displays delayed Aging), Mir27a expression is significantly higher than in control mice. Mir27a may be responsible for delayed Aging in dwarf mice: it suppresses the expression of ODC1 and SRM, which in turn suppresses polyamine synthesis in dwarf mice liver. Part of the ability of dwarf mice to suppress or avoid tumor or Cancer growth may be attributed to the decreased Polyamine biosynthesis. [19878148] House mouse
    MIR106A microRNA 106A MIR106A is downregulated in senescent cells as it has a good correlation with p21 transcription, while p53 represses mir17-92 cluster [20437201; 20089119]. Human
    miR17 microRNA 17 miR17 is downregulated in senescent cells and has a good correlation with p21 transcription, while p53 represses mir17-92 cluster [20437201; 20089119] Human
    miR222 microRNA 222 miR221 and miR222 downregulate PTEN, a major tumor suppressor and TIMP3, which induces activation of caspases 8 and 9 [19962668]. Thus miR221 and miR222 enhance tumorigenecity in cell lung cancer, gastric cancer and hepatocarcinoma cells [20618998]. Human
    miR221 microRNA 221 miR221 and miR222 downregulate PTEN, a major tumor suppressor and TIMP3, which induces activation of caspases 8 and 9 [19962668]. Thus miR221 and miR222 enhance tumorigenecity in cell lung cancer, gastric cancer and hepatocarcinoma cells [20618998] Human
    Mir489 microRNA 489 Mir489 is maintaining adult stem cells in quiescence phase. Inhibition of miR489 is sufficient to make murine satellite muscle cells exit the quiescence phase and enter the cell cycle through downregulation of the oncogene Dek [22358842]. House mouse
    MIR29A microRNA 29a miR-29a reduces the amount of methylation and upregulates a long non-coding RNA form a region called MEG3 that is responsible for inducing apoptotic pathway. Thus reducing tumorgensis in non-malignant hepatocytes [21625215]. Human
    Mir133 miR-133 is associated with stem cell differentiation in mouse and human ESCs [18371447]. House mouse
    Mir1 miR-1 is associated with stem cell differentiation in mouse and human ESCs [18371447]. House mouse
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    • 25 of 52 factors
    Factors are an extension of GenAge and GenDR.

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