Factors

We need to know every factor which determines lifespan.

Lifespan factors often but not always originate from defined genetic elements. They are not just genes, by definition they can be anything for which a Classifications schema can be build for that is related to the regulation of lifespan, such entities may include Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism, transcript variants, proteins and their complexes, compounds (i.e. small molecules like metabolites and drugs), etc. A factor should be based on a defined molecular entity or genomic position and been classified. It shall be highly flexible and scalable Concept.

While individual lifespan factors within each species or precise defined molecular entities will be captured within the Lifespan App, Data Entries of the Data App may summarize for instance the relevance of each factor class (e.g. homologous group; chemical derivate of related structure and properties, etc.) as well as draw overall conclusions. o

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  • symbol name observation species
    Mincoycline In Drosophila melongaster treatment with minocycline (0.87mM) prolongs mean, median and maximum lifespan of wild-type (Oregon strain) of both genders. In females mincocycline extend mean and maximum lifespan by 57 and 78%, respectively. In males minocycline results in a mean and maximum lifespan extension by 114 and 28%, respectively [23185716].
    Hesperidin Hesperidin derived from the Citrus genus extends replicative lifespan at doses of 5 and 10 microMolar. Hesperdin inihibts ROS and UTH1 gene expression, but increases Sir2 and SOD gene expression. UTH1 and SKN7 are involved in lifespan extension mediated by hesperidin [22484922]. Budding yeast
    Diabenol In female NMRI and transgenic HER-2/neu mice supplementation of diabenol with drinking water 5 times a week since the age of 2 months, increases survival and inhibits spontaneous carcinogenesis. In NMRI diabenol does not influence body weight gain dynamics, food and water consumption, but slowed down age-related disturbances in estrous function and increases the lifespan of all and 10% most long-living ones. Diabenol treatment in NMRI mice also inhibits spontaneous tumor incidence (mammary and lymphomas mainly) and increases mammary tumor latency. Diabenol treatment slows down age-related changes in estrous function in HER-2/neu mice, but fails to influence survival and slightly inhibited the incidence and decrease the size of mammary adenocarcinoma metastasis into the lung [15754958]. House mouse
    Germline Sterilization prolongs lifespan, in species from insect to humans. In hermaphrodite C. elegans, removing sperm and egg-producing cells extends lifespan by 50%. Removing those cells triggers a reaction in the surrounding tissue. The signal is send out in the form of a steroid hormone, that turns on a molecular switch, which switches them into a kind of survival mode. Specifically, remaining gonadal cells trigger production of a steroid hormone dafachronic acid. Dafachronic acid activates miRNAs, which work as tiny molecular switch causing changes in gene expression that promote longevity. The same steroid hormone-miRNA switch is part of the developmental clock. The loss of the germ cells ultimately causes the worm to use developmental timers to put in motion a lifespan-prolonging programme [23239738].
    (R)-N-(2-heptyl)-N-methylpropargylamine Addition of 0.66 ng/fly/day (R)-N-(2-heptyl)-N-methylpropargylamine to a sucrose-based diet resulted in no significant effect on lifespan, but lifespan reduction due to galactose feeding is partially suppressed by supplementation with (R)-deprnyl or (R)-N-(2-heptyl)-N-methylpropargylamine [9972869]. Fruit fly
    ENSRNOG00000044316 is transcriptional downregulated in the cerebral cortex at the age 28 months under different longevity conditions such as under dietary restriction (DR) as well as in feeding switch regimens that result in extended lifespan, like early age switch to DR as well as the reverse switch under the influence of the DR-mimetic α-lipoic acid (i.e. DR switched to ad libitum+ lipoic acid) [Shona et al. 2013]. Norway rat
    D-glucosamine In budding yeast addition of 0.5 mg/ml D-glucosamine to the growth media suppresses the short replicative lifespan and temperature sensitive growth of mpt5 mutant, but fails to extend the lifespan of wild-type cells [11805047].
    Phloridzin Administration of the apple polyphenol phloridzin at doses of 3, 10, and 30 microMolar siginificantly prolongs the replicative lifespan in K6001 yeast strain (p < 0.01; p < 0.001). Phloridizin improves the viability of cells under oxidative stress (7 microMolar H2O2) in a dose-dependent manner and increases the significantly the expression of SOD1, SOD2, and SIR2 [21597195].
    ENSRNOG00000044070 is transcriptional upregulated in the cerebral cortex at the age 28 months under different longevity conditions such as under dietary restriction (DR) as well as in feeding switch regimens that result in extended lifespan, like early age switch to DR as well as the reverse switch under the influence of the DR-mimetic α-lipoic acid (i.e. DR switched to ad libitum+ lipoic acid) [Shona et al. 2013]. Norway rat
    Ganodermasides A Application of Ganodermasides A extends the replicative lifespan of budding yeast in K6001 strain by regulating UTH1 expression [20093034].
    Ganodermasides B Application of Ganodermasides B extends the replicative lifespan of budding yeast in K6001 strain by regulating UTH1 expression [20093034].
    Gonadermasides C In budding yeast application of gonadermasides C significantly increases the replicative lifespan in the K6001 strain by regulating UTH1 [21512225].
    Gonadermasides D In budding yeast application of gonadermasides D significantly increases the replicative lifespan in the K6001 strain by regulating UTH1 [21512225].
    Oligomycin In fruit fly, Oligomycin feeding exends lifespan on ad libitum and prevents an increase in longevity under DR (started in the adulthood) in males [19968629].
    Rapamycin Rapamcyin increases mouse lifespan even when administrated late in life [19587680]. House mouse
    Tyrosol In nematodes treatment with tyrosol (250 microMolar) extends mean, median, and maximum, lifespan by 21, 21, and 11% [22824366].
    Pinitol In fruit flies, Pinitol (a 3-methoxy analogue of D-chiro-inositol) supplementation to the diet. For both males and females, a 20 microMolar dose of pinitol significantly extends median lifespan by 13% (p < 0.05) and 12.5% (p < 0.05), respectively. Lifespan extension by pinitol is accompanied by protection against oxidative and starvation stresses, improvement in health span, and no reduction in fecundity. Pinitol increases organismal lifespan of both in dietary restriction and ad libitum conditions. Nuclear localization of foxo increases in pinitol-fed animals. Pinitol treatment significantly activates JNK and S6K, but not AKT [22843669].
    Curcumin Curcumin increases lifespan in *C. elegans* and is associated with reduced ROS and lipofuscin during aging. Curcumin lifespan extension is attributed to its antioxidative properties. Lifespan extension had effects on body size and pharyngeal pumping rate but not on reproduction. Lifespan-extension by curcumin is abolished in osr-1, sek-1, mek-1, skn-1, unc-43, sir-2.1 and age-1 mutants, whereas curcumin treatment prolongs lifespan of mev-1 and daf-16 mutants [21855561]. *C. elegans* feed low concentration of curcumin have a decreased lipofuscin levels and enhanced the resistance to heat stress and increased mean lifespan by 39% and a maximum lifespan extended by 21.4% [23325575]. In fruit fly that survive an average of 64 days, an increase of mean lifespan to 80 days occurs in flies, with females of one strain and males of another strain experiencing an extension in lifespan. The lifespan response to curcimun exhibits variation in male and female, although the compound extends lifespan in both genders [23325575]. In fruit fly, 0.5 an 1.0 mg/g curcumin in the diet increases mean lifespan by 6.2 and 25% in females and by 15.5 and 12.6 in males, respectively. Lifespan extension by curcumin was associated with the increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, upregulation of Ms-SOD and CuZn-SOD genes, and the downregulation of *dInR*, *ATTD*, *Def*, *CecB* and, *DptB* genes as well as reduction of lipofuscin, malondialdehyde and lipid peroxidation [22653297; 23325575]. Curcumin prolongs life and enhances activity of fruit fly Alzheimer diseased flies [22348084].
    (-)-epidcatechin Treatment with (-)-epidcatechin do no extend C. elegans lifespan [20717869]. Nematode
    Wortmannin Treatment of Drosophila imago with 0.5 micromolar wortmannin increases median (by 5%) and maximum (by 39%) lifespan in males (p < 0.001), but the lifespan differences in females were statistical insignificant (p > 0.05) [22661237]. Low dose of wortmannin (5 microM) slightly increase the median and maximum lifespan [20017609].
    GSTM1 glutathione S-transferase mu 1 GSTM1 was not found to be associated with longevity [11162685]. Human
    INS insulin INS was not found to be associated with longevity [19367319]. Human
    SLC6A4 solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter, serotonin), member 4 SLC6A4 was found to be associated with longevity [15621215]. Human
    TAS2R16 taste receptor, type 2, member 16 TAS2R16 was found to be associated with longevity [23133589]. Human
    TUBB4B tubulin, beta 2C TUBB4B was found to be associated with longevity [22174011]. Human
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    • 25 of 2668 factors
    Factors are an extension of GenAge and GenDR.

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