We need to know every factor which determines lifespan.

Lifespan factors often but not always originate from defined genetic elements. They are not just genes, by definition they can be anything for which a Classifications schema can be build for that is related to the regulation of lifespan, such entities may include Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism, transcript variants, proteins and their complexes, compounds (i.e. small molecules like metabolites and drugs), etc. A factor should be based on a defined molecular entity or genomic position and been classified. It shall be highly flexible and scalable Concept.

While individual lifespan factors within each species or precise defined molecular entities will be captured within the Lifespan App, Data Entries of the Data App may summarize for instance the relevance of each factor class (e.g. homologous group; chemical derivate of related structure and properties, etc.) as well as draw overall conclusions. o


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    Drug (8)  
  • symbol name observation species
    2-MEA 2-Mercaptoethylanime hydrochloride Addition of 1% by weight 2-MEA to the diet of male LAF mice, started shortly after weaning, increases average lifespan by approximately 30%, but does not extend maximum lifespan [5723482; 11795501]. Addition of 2-MEA to the maternal diet of female mice increases the lifespan of male and female offspring by 15 and 8%, respectively [Harman & Eddy, 1979; 11795501]. Addition of 2-MEA of an antioxidant mixture containing ethoxyquin and 2-MEA to the diet of dietary restricted mice shortens lifespan approximately 20% [2394907]. References ---------------- Harman, D., and Eddy, D. E. (1979). Free radical theory of aging: beneficial effect of adding antioxidants to the maternal mouse diet on life span of offspring: possible explanation of the sex difference in longevity. Age 2, 109-22. House mouse
    CSODM Carboxyfullerene SOD mimetic Administration of a small-molecule synthetic enzyme superoxide dismutase mimetic to wild-type (i.e. non-transgenic; non-senescence accelerated) mice starting at middle age significantly extends lifespan and reduces age-associated oxidative stress and mitochondrial radical production. Treatment also improves performance on Morris water maze learning and memory task and therefore rescues age-related cognitive impairment [17079053]. Carboxyfullerene SOD mimetic is an antioxidant with mitochondrial activity and nervous system penetration capability [17079053].
    Spd Spermidine Administration of spermidine extends lifespan of yeast, flies and worms and human immune cells. In yeast spermidine treatment triggers deacetylation of H3 through inhibition of histone acetylatranserfases, suppresses oxidative stress and necrosis. Altered acetylation of the chromatin results in upregulation of various autophagy-related genes and triggers autophagy [19801973]. In nematodes treatment with 0.2 mM spermidine extends mean and maximum lifespan of wild-type by 16 and 13% significantly (<0.005) as well as the mean and maximum lifespan in sir-2.1(ok434) by 12 and 11% significantly (<0.01).
    Phloridzin Administration of the apple polyphenol phloridzin at doses of 3, 10, and 30 microMolar siginificantly prolongs the replicative lifespan in K6001 yeast strain (p < 0.01; p < 0.001). Phloridizin improves the viability of cells under oxidative stress (7 microMolar H2O2) in a dose-dependent manner and increases the significantly the expression of SOD1, SOD2, and SIR2 [21597195].
    2-ME 2-Mercaptoethanol Animals fed a diet supplemented with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) exhibit an increased mean and maximum lifespan [6334792]. T-cell-dependent immune responses are higher in the 2-ME-fed mice compared to the controls when the animals are young. The accumulation of fluorescent products of lipid peroxidation damage is also delayed in the lymphocytes of the 2-ME-fed mice and tumor onset and incidence is reduced in these animals [6334792]. House mouse
    AP Apple polyphenol Apple polyphenols mainly consists of procyanidins, which are composed of (-)-epicatechins and (+)-catechins. Treatment of C. elegans with 100 microgram/mL apple polyphenol increases mean lifespan of wild-type N2 and FEM-1 by 12.0 and 5.3%, respectively [20717869]. In fruit flies, supplemention of the diet with apple polyphenol significantly extends mean lifespan by 10% and is accompanied by up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT as well as downregulation of MTH in aged animals [21319854].
    Ganodermasides A Application of Ganodermasides A extends the replicative lifespan of budding yeast in K6001 strain by regulating UTH1 expression [20093034].
    Ganodermasides B Application of Ganodermasides B extends the replicative lifespan of budding yeast in K6001 strain by regulating UTH1 expression [20093034].
    BTE Black tea extract Black tea extract is a mixture of epicatechins and theaflavins. In fruit fly, upplementation of the diet with black tea extract extends the lifespan by 10% (from 51 to 56 days) and is associated with higher SOD1 and CAT expression [19770032].
    Curcumin Curcumin increases lifespan in *C. elegans* and is associated with reduced ROS and lipofuscin during aging. Curcumin lifespan extension is attributed to its antioxidative properties. Lifespan extension had effects on body size and pharyngeal pumping rate but not on reproduction. Lifespan-extension by curcumin is abolished in osr-1, sek-1, mek-1, skn-1, unc-43, sir-2.1 and age-1 mutants, whereas curcumin treatment prolongs lifespan of mev-1 and daf-16 mutants [21855561]. *C. elegans* feed low concentration of curcumin have a decreased lipofuscin levels and enhanced the resistance to heat stress and increased mean lifespan by 39% and a maximum lifespan extended by 21.4% [23325575]. In fruit fly that survive an average of 64 days, an increase of mean lifespan to 80 days occurs in flies, with females of one strain and males of another strain experiencing an extension in lifespan. The lifespan response to curcimun exhibits variation in male and female, although the compound extends lifespan in both genders [23325575]. In fruit fly, 0.5 an 1.0 mg/g curcumin in the diet increases mean lifespan by 6.2 and 25% in females and by 15.5 and 12.6 in males, respectively. Lifespan extension by curcumin was associated with the increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, upregulation of Ms-SOD and CuZn-SOD genes, and the downregulation of *dInR*, *ATTD*, *Def*, *CecB* and, *DptB* genes as well as reduction of lipofuscin, malondialdehyde and lipid peroxidation [22653297; 23325575]. Curcumin prolongs life and enhances activity of fruit fly Alzheimer diseased flies [22348084].
    DATS Diallyl Trisulfide DATS increases longevity apparently by enhancing skn-1. Treatment with 5-10 μM DATS increases lifespan even when treatment is started during young adulthood. DATS increases the lifespan of daf-2 and daf-16 mutants, but not that of eat-2 mutants. DATS treatment leads to the induction of the skn-1 target gene gst-4 and this induction is dependent on skn-1. DATS effect on lifespan is dependent on skn-1 activity in both intestine and ASI neurons [21296648].
    CYT1 cytochrome c1 Deletion of CYT1 increases replicative lifespan by 15% in the alpha strain and decreases replicative lifespan by 20% in a strain. Deletion of CYT1 decreases replicative lifespan and cancels out replicative lifespan extension by HAP4 overexpression. Initially, it was shown that deletion of CYT1 also prevents lifespan extension by 0.5% glucose restriction [12124627], but later it was shown that either 0.5 or 0.05 % glucose restriction increases replicative lifespan of cyt1Delta cells [16311627]. Budding yeast
    HDA1 Histone DeAcetylase 1 Deletion of HDA1 has no effect on longevity under AL, but acts synergistically with 0.1% glucose restriction to increase replicative lifespan [12213553]. Deletion of HDA1 leads to a slightly increased chronological lifespan [19801973]. Deletion of HDA1 has no effect on the wild-type lifespan in the short-lifespan of YSK771 strain, but suppresses the short-lifespan of SIR3 mutants [10512855]. Budding yeast
    DhHP-6 Deterohemin-AlaHisThrValGluLys Deuterohemin containing peptide deterohemin-AlaHisThrValGluLys (DhHP-6) significantly increases mean lifespan (P < 0.05), but not maximum lifespan. DhHP-6 also improves survival rate in acute heat-stress (35 degree Celsius) and rescues sensitivity to paraquat in acute oxidative stress. DhHP-6 treatment up-regulates SOD-3 and also regulates stress resistance genes such as hsp-16.1, hsp16.49 and sir-2.1 daf-16 and sir-2.1 genes are essential for the beneficial effect of DhHP-6 [20528576].
    Laz Lazarillo Extracellular forms of Laz have autocrine and paracrine protecting effects for oxidative stress-challanged Drosophila S2 cells. Local effects of GPI-linked Laz inside and outside the nervous system promote survival upon different stress forms, and extend lifespan and healthspan of the flies in a cell-type dependent manner. Ectopic enhancement of Laz expression increases mean, median, and maximum lifespan. Laz overexpression (via the use of a ubiquitous da-GAL4 driver) increases median lifepan by 28.3% (p < 0.0005). Overexpression of Laz specifically in muscles and brain (via GAL4109(2)80 driver) increases median lifespan by 43.5%. Laz overxpression in dopaminergic and serotenergic neurons and epidermis increases median lifespan bt 31.4% (p < 0.0005) [22846641]. Fruit fly
    Hesperidin Hesperidin derived from the Citrus genus extends replicative lifespan at doses of 5 and 10 microMolar. Hesperdin inihibts ROS and UTH1 gene expression, but increases Sir2 and SOD gene expression. UTH1 and SKN7 are involved in lifespan extension mediated by hesperidin [22484922]. Budding yeast
    JUG Jugelone treatment High jugelone concentrations led to premature death. Low juglone concentrations are tolerated well and cause a prolongation of lifespan that is associated with increased expression of small heat-shock protein HSP-16.2, enhanced glutathione levels, and nuclear translocation of DAF-16. Silencing or deletion of daf-16 prevents jugelone-induced adaptations. RNA-interference for SIR-2.1 has the same effects as daf-16 deletion but does not affect nuclear accumulation of DAF-16. DAF-16- and SIR-2.1-dependent alterations in gene expression after challenge with reactive oxygene species lead to lifespan extension [19597959].
    TSA Trichostatin A Histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) extends the lifespan of *Drosophila melanogaster* by promoting the hsp22 gene transcription, and affecting the chromatin morphology at the locus of hsp22 gene along the polytene chromosome [15346199]. hsp70 and hsp22 RNA levels are higher in long-lived than in short-lived fly lines. The HDAC inhibitor TSA causes a higher expression of hsp22 and hsp70, and strikingly influences the lifespan in both long and short-lived lines, with variable degrees (up to 25%) [15695762]. Human
    Icariin Icariin Icariin and its derivate icariside II extend lifespan. Animals treated with icariin have high levels of icariside II [22216122]. Nematode
    Icariside II Icariside II Icariside II and its derivate icarrin extend lifespan. Animals treated with icariin have high levels of icariside II. Icariside II also increases thermo and oxidative stress tolerance, slow locomotion decline in late adulthood and delay the onset of paralysis mediated by polyQ and ABeta(1-42) proteotoxicity. Lifespan extension by Icariside II is dependent on IIS, since daf-16(mu86) and daf-2(e1370) fails to sho exhibit lifespan extension upon icariside treatment. Incariside II treatment upregulates expression of DAF-16 targets in wild-type. HSF-1 has also a role in icariside II-dependent lifespan extension [22216122]. Nematode
    Gonadermasides C In budding yeast application of gonadermasides C significantly increases the replicative lifespan in the K6001 strain by regulating UTH1 [21512225].
    Gonadermasides D In budding yeast application of gonadermasides D significantly increases the replicative lifespan in the K6001 strain by regulating UTH1 [21512225].
    Beau I beauveriolide I In budding yeast treatment with beauveriolide I (20 microgram/mL) extends chronological lifespan in BY4741 by around 50% [22790951].
    Rapa Rapamycin In budding yeast treatment with rapamcyin increases mean and maximum replicative lifespan by 19 and 16% Rapamycin fails to extend the lifespan of sir2 mutants or NAM treated wild-type cells [20947565]. Rapamcyin treatment increases mean chronological lifespan by by approximately by 80% in BY4742 [22790951]. Rapamycin extends chronological lifespan proportional with increasing concentrations from 100 pg/mL to 1 ng/mL [16418483]. Treatment with rapamcyin in nemaotdes increases mean, median, 75th %ile and maximum lifespan by 19-29, 17-29, 24-32 an 19%, respectively on OP50. On HT115 rapamycyin extends mean, median and 75th %ile of lifespan by 8-36, 4-46 and 12-44%, respectively. Rapamycin robustly increases lifespan in two daf-16 mutants (mgDf47 and mu86) with or without FUdR and with growth on either the standard strain OP50 or the feeding RNAi strain HT115 [22560223]. Treatment of Drosophila imago with rapamycin induces increases of median (by 5-6%) lifespan (p < 0.01) in males and females, respectively and increase of maximum lifespan (by 33%) in females (p < 0.01) [22661237]. Rapamcyin increases mouse lifespan even when administrated late in life [19587680]. Low dose of rapamycin (5 microM) slightly increase the median and maximum lifespan in fruit fly [20017609]. Rapamcyin increases mouse lifespan and healthspan even when administrated late in life (20 months) [19587680]. Rapamycin enhances learning and memory in young mice and improves these faculties in old mice thereby negating the normal decline in these functions with age. Rapamycin boost levels of neurotransmitters associated with neural plasticity. Rapamycin also lowered anxiety and depressive-like behaviour at all ages from 4, 12 and 28 months. "Happy, feel-good" neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine are all significantly augmented in the midbrains of rapamycin treated mice [http://denigma.de/url/37]. Treatment with rapamycin increased lifespan and suppresses spontanous tumorgenesis in inbred female mice [22107964].
    Asc Ascrobate In budding yeast, the hypersensitivity to oxygene and significantly decreased replicative lifespan of SOD1 deletion can be ameliorated by exogenous ascorbate. If acorbate's negative effects of auto-oxidation are prevented by exchange of medium, ascorbate prolongs mean and maximum replicative lifespan in the atmosphere of air and pure oxygene [15621721].
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    • 25 of 55 factors
    Factors are an extension of GenAge and GenDR.

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