We need to know every factor which determines lifespan.

Lifespan factors often but not always originate from defined genetic elements. They are not just genes, by definition they can be anything for which a Classifications schema can be build for that is related to the regulation of lifespan, such entities may include Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism, transcript variants, proteins and their complexes, compounds (i.e. small molecules like metabolites and drugs), etc. A factor should be based on a defined molecular entity or genomic position and been classified. It shall be highly flexible and scalable Concept.

While individual lifespan factors within each species or precise defined molecular entities will be captured within the Lifespan App, Data Entries of the Data App may summarize for instance the relevance of each factor class (e.g. homologous group; chemical derivate of related structure and properties, etc.) as well as draw overall conclusions. o


  • symbol name observation species
    lin-4 abnormal cell LINeage 4 A loss-of-function mutation in lin-4 shortens lifespan and accelerated tissue ageing while overexpressing lin-4 extends lifespan by redarding aging [16373574]. lin-4 is regulated by DAF-16 in L1 arrest. Nematode
    CKIepsilon casein kinase I epsilon A mutation called tau, if homozygous, shortens the circadian period (by 20%), increases metabolic rate (by 20%), and increases lifespan by 14-16% under conditions of constant darkness [12054192]. Male and female wild-type hamsters are heavier than homozygous mutants throughout the entire lifespan, and heterozygous mutants have intermediate weight [12054192]. Syrian hamster
    aak-2 AMP-Activated Kinase 2 AAK-2 could be a sensor that couples energy levels and insulin-like signals to lifespan. aak-2(ok524) knockout mutants have a 12% and 18% shorter mean and maximum lifespan, respectively as well as faster age-dependent accumulation of a lipofuscin-like fluorescent pigment in the intestine [15574588]. sDR increases AMP:ATP ratio. aak-2 mutation suppresses lifespan extension and delay of the decline in locomotor activity resulting from sDR. A constitutive active mutation of aak-2 is sufficient to cause increase stress resistance as well as to significantly extend lifespan. Both increased stress resistance and extended lifespan is reverted in daf-16 knockdown by RNAi. sod-3 mRNA is increased by constitutive active form of aak-2 and decreased by aak-2 mutation. The increase in sod-3 mRNA is dependent on expression of DAF-16. Worm and human AMPK phosphorylate DAF-16 (greatly enhanced by presence of AMP) at least in six residues (T166, S202, S314, S321, T463 and S466) [17900900]. aak-2 mutation cancels out the lifespan extension effect of sDR and PD, regardless of the concentration of bacteria or peptones. bDR significantly extends lifespan of aak-2 mutants, but to lesser extent than that of wild-type. eat-2 mutation extends the lifespan of aak-2 mutants to the same extent than that of wild-type. Resveratrol does not increase lifespan of aak-2 mutants [19239417]. daf-2(m577);aak-2(ok524) double mutant has a lifespan that is indistinguishable from those of aak-2(ok524) single mutant. Transgenic animals with a higher aak-2 gene dose live on average 13% longer with a maximum lifespan extension on up to 25% [15574588]. Nematode
    aakg-2 AMP-Activated protein Kinase Gamma subunit 2 aakg-2 overexpression extends mean, median, and maximum lifespan by 47, 45, and 35%. Overexpression of aakg-2 toegther with D. rerio ucp2 was non-additive with sDR [22737090]. Nematode
    hebe Adult-specific overexpression of hebe increases the lifespan by 5-30% and modulates late-age female fecundity. Female and male mean lifespan is up to 11% and 24% higher [19011900]. Fruit fly
    magu Adult-specific overexpression of magu increases lifespan by 5-30% and modulates late-age fecundity [19011900]. Fruit fly
    MSRA methionine sulfoxide reductase A Animals engineered to overexpress bovine MSRA in the nervous system have an extended median lifespan by up to 70% (relative to parental control), increased resistance to oxidative stress, and delayed the onset of senescence-induced decline in activity levels and reproductive capacity [11867705].
    Atg2 Autophagy-specific gene 2 Atg2 overexpression increases average female lifespan by 28% [18059160]. Fruit fly
    bam bag of marbles Bam mutants have an extended lifespan due to germ cell loss. Lifespan of females is on average up to 50% higher and that of males on average s up to 27.8% higher [18434551]. Fruit fly
    Bub1b budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1 homolog, beta (S. cerevisiae) Bub1b hypomorphic mutation decreases median lifespan by 60% (from 15 to 6 months) and such mutant mice that procude low levels of the protein are prone to aneuplody and develop many phenotypes suggestive of accelerated aging, including short lifespan, growth retardation, sarcopenia, lordokyphosis, progressive bilateral cataracts, substantial loss of sub dermal adipose tissue, spinal kyphosis, muscle atrophy, reduced dermal thickness and decreased wound healing [15208629; 17272762; 16781018; 18516091]. Moreover, there is a pronounced increase in senescent associated Beta-galactosidase expression in late generation Bub1b mutant mice, indicative of increased rate of cellular senescence. Homozyogous knockout of Bub1b results in lethality, while heterozygous animals exhibit no aging phenotypes [15208629]. Sustained high-level expression of BubR1 preserves genomic integrity and reduces tumorgenesis (even in the presence of genetic alterations that strongly promote aneuplodization and cancer, such as oncogenic Ras) and extends the lifespan and delays age-related deterioriation and aneuploidy in several tissues [23242215]. BubR1 overabundance exerts its protective effect by correcting mitotic checkpoints defects [23242215]. BubR1 expression level declines with age in various tissues [15208629; 17272762; 16781018]. The median and maximum lifespan of mice with a nonsense mutation 2211insGTTA in BubR1 is significantly reduced. BubR1(+/GTTA) mice develop several aging-related phenotypes at an accelerated rate, including catarct formation, lordokyphosis, skeletal muscle wasting, impaired exercise ability, and fat loss. Further BubR1(+/GTTA) mice develop mild anaplodies and exhibit enhanced growth of carcinogen-induced tumors [Wijshake et al. 2012]. House mouse
    Igf1 Insulin-like growth factor 1 (somatomedin C) Cardiac specific overexpression of Igf1 results in a 23% increase in median lifespan, though no increase in maximum lifespan [17973971]. House mouse
    PNC1 Pyrazinamidase/NiCotinamidase 1 Cells with 5 copies of PNC1 have a 70% longer replicative lifespan which is cancelled out by SIR2 deletion. PNC1 is upregulated under glucose DR [12736687]. Pnc1 reduces cellular nicotinamide levels, a product and noncompetitive inhibitor of Sir2 deacetylation reaction. Overexpression of PNC1 suppresses the effect of exogenously added nicotinamide on Sir2-dependent silencing at HM loci, telomeres and rDNA loci [12736687; 14729974]. Pnc1 catalyses the breakdown of nicotinamide to nicotinate and ammonia [12736687]. Deletion of PNC1 shortens replicative lifespan approximately by 10% [12736687] and largely prevents replicative lifespan extension of 0.5% glucose restriction. 0.5% glucose restriction slightly extends median replicative lifespan (by 10 - 15%) but not maximum replicative lifespan in pnc1Delta [14724176]. PNC1 overexpression suppresses the inhibitory effect of exogenously added NAM on silencing, lifespan, and Hst1-mediated transcriptional repression [14729974]. Increased expression of PNC1 is both necessary and sufficient for replicative lifespan extension by DR and low-intensity stress. Under non-stressing conditions (2% glucose, 30 degree Celsius), a strain with additional copies of PNC1 (5XPNC1) has 70% longer replicative lifespan than the wild-type and some cells live for more than 70 divisions. Neither DR nor heat stress further increase the lifespan of the 5XPNC1 strain [12736687]. PNC1 deletion decreases chronological lifespan [17110466]. Budding yeast
    Cisd2 CDGSH iron sulfur domain 2 Cisd2 knockouts expire premature ageing and reduced lifespan [19451219]. A persistent level of Cisd2 achieved by transgenic expression extends mean, median and maximum lifespan without any apparent deleterious side effects [22661501]. House mouse
    wis1 Constitutive active mutation of wis1 extends chronological lifespan and there is no further beneficial effect of DR [20075862]. Fission yeast
    ctl-1 CaTaLase 1 ctl-1 loss of function shortens lifespan to 77% of wild-type animals. ctl-1 mutants accumulate fluorescent material faster than wild-type, indicating accelerated aging [12610632]. ctl-1 mutation prevents lifespan extension by daf-2 or clk-1. Mutation of ctl-1 reudces catalase activty by 50% [10335847]. All these results have been retracted. Nematode
    daf-18 Abnormal DAuer Formation daf-18 is required for complete dauer formation. Overexpression increases adult lifespan in individual tissues [16153634]. daf-18 mutation partially suppresses the lifespan extension of age-1 and daf-2 mutants. daf-18 mutants are defective for dauer formation and form some dauer-like larvae when starved [7789761; 8601482]. Nematode
    FIS1 fission 1 (mitochondrial outer membrane) homolog (S. cerevisiae) Deletion of FIS1 prolongs significantly mean and maximum lifespan by 13 and 29% as well as improves the fitness of old mother cells (in BY4741) [17173038]. Budding yeast
    HPR1 HyPerRecombination 1 Deletion of HPR1 decreases replicative lifespan [11756539] Budding yeast
    LAG2 Protein involved in determination of longevity Deletion of LAG2 in haploid SP1 strain does not affect growth, but results in a 50% decrease in the mean and maximum replicative lifespan. When LAG2 is overexpressed, the mean and maximum replicative lifespan is extended by about 36% and 54%, respectively. Overexpression induced at generation 12 similarly increases replicative lifespan [8760941]. Budding yeast
    MXR1 peptide Methionine sulfoXide Reductase 1 Deletion of MXR1 (alias MsrA) decreases by 25% and overexpression slightly increases the replicative lifespan [15141092]. Deletion of MXR1 decreases replicative lifespan [19049972]. MXR1 deletion decreases replicative lifespan on either glucose or lactate as carbon source [20799725]. Although deletion or overexpression of MXR2 (alias MsrB) has no effect under normal growth conditions, the simultaneous deletion of MXR1 and MXR2 reduces the lifespan by 63% [15141092]. Budding yeast
    NNT1 Nicotinamide N-methylTransferase 1 Deletion of NNT1 decreases mean and maximum lifespan by 9 and 19%. 0.5% glucose DR extends the mean and maximum lifespan of NNT1 deletion mutants by 35 and 40%. Overexpression of NNT1 by 5-fold extends mean and maximum replicative lifespan by 18 and 23%, which is approximately of the same magnitude as the lifespan extension obtained from DR. DR in NNT1 overexpression mutant fails to significantly affect the lifespan and only results in extended mean lifespan by 12% and reduced maximum lifespan by 11%. NNT1 overexpression increases rDNA silincing, whereas deletion decreases rDNA silencing. Overexpression of human nicotinamide N-methyltransferase also increases rDNA silencing [12736687]. Budding yeast
    PMR1 High affinity Ca2+/Mn2+ P-type ATPase required for Ca2+ and Mn2+ transport into Golgi; involved in Ca2+ dependent protein sorting and processing; mutations in human homolog ATP2C1 cause acantholytic skin condition Hailey-Hailey disease Deletion of PMR1 increses the replicative lifespan by 40% in the alpha strain and by 15% in the a strain. Overexpression of PMR1 extends the lifespan [21918615]. Budding yeast
    RPL6A Ribosomal Protein of the Large subunit 6A Deletion of RPL6A decrease mean replicative lifespan by 25% in the alpha strain [18340043; 18423200], but increases mean replicative lifespan by 40% in the remade strain. Its deletion non-significantly increases mean replicative lifespan in the ORF collection [22377630]. Budding yeast
    SIR2 Silent Information Regulator 2 Deletion of SIR2 shortens replicative lifespan by approximately 30%. Integration of a second copy of SIR2 into the wild-type strain leads to an extension of replicative lifespan by around 35% in W303R strain [10521401]. Deletion of SIR2 causes genomic instability at rDNA array [2647300] and shortens replicative lifespan by 50% [11000115]. 0.5% glucose restriction fails to increase the short lifespan of sir2Delta [11000115] probably duo to hyperaccumulations of extrachromosomal rDNA circles (ERCs) [16311627]. 0.1% glucose restriction extends replicative lifespan of sir2 mutants [12213553]. 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05% glucose restriction are able to increase lifespan of sir2;fob1 double mutant to a greater extent than in wild-type [15328540]. 0.05% glucose restriction further extends replicative lifespan of SIR2 overexpression mutant [15328540]. Sir2 blocks extreme chronological lifespan extension as the lack of Sir2 along with DR and/or mutations in the yeast AKT homolog, Sch9, or Ras pathways causes a dramatic chronological lifespan extension (6-fold) [16286010]. Sir2 inhibits formation of ERCs and acts on histones as well metabolic enzymes among others. Overexpression extends replicative lifespan in several strains, but not in PSY316 [15684413]. Chronological lifespan of sir2 deletion mutant is significantly extended compared with wild-type in water (extreme DR) but not in saturated cultures containing 2% glucose (ad libitum). SIR2 mutants are defective for telomere [1913809] and HM silencing [6098447; 3297920]. have increased rDNA recombination [2647300] and a loss of rDNA silencing [9009207; 9009206]. Budding yeast
    SIR4 Silent information regulator 4 Deletion of SIR4 results in 20-25% reduction of lifespan [10521401]. SIR4 deletion mutants exhibit loss of silencing at the silent mating type loci [3297920] and telomeres [1913809] and have slightly elevated level of rDNA marker loss [10521401]. The short lifespan of a SIR4 mutant is probably due to the simultaneous expression of a and alpha mating-type information, which indirectly causes an increase in rDNA recombination and likely increases the production of extrachromosomal rDNA circles. Lifespan reduction by SIR4 deletion is suppressed by preventing mating type heterozygosity (co-expression of MATa and MATalpha). The sir4-42 mutation extends lifespan of by more than 30% and is semidominant in Bx1-14c strain which carrys a C-terminal truncation of MPT5/UTH4. sir4-42 extends lifespan by preventing recruitment of the SIR proteins to HM loci and telomeres, thereby increasing their concentration at other chromosomal regions. Expression of only the carboxyl terminus of SIR4 interferes with silencing at HM loci and telomere, which also extends lifespan [7859289]. Both Sir3 and Sir4 relocate to the nucleolus in the sir4-42 mutant background, dependent upon MPT5 and YGL023. sir4-42 has no effect on lifespan in a UTH4 wild-type strain background [9150138]. sir-4-42 results in constitutive localization of SIR3 to the rDNA. Lifespan extension by sir4-42 is likely due to increased dosage of SIR2 at the rDNA [10521401]. Budding yeast
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    • 25 of 170 factors
    Factors are an extension of GenAge and GenDR.

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