We need to know every factor which determines lifespan.

Lifespan factors often but not always originate from defined genetic elements. They are not just genes, by definition they can be anything for which a Classifications schema can be build for that is related to the regulation of lifespan, such entities may include Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism, transcript variants, proteins and their complexes, compounds (i.e. small molecules like metabolites and drugs), etc. A factor should be based on a defined molecular entity or genomic position and been classified. It shall be highly flexible and scalable Concept.

While individual lifespan factors within each species or precise defined molecular entities will be captured within the Lifespan App, Data Entries of the Data App may summarize for instance the relevance of each factor class (e.g. homologous group; chemical derivate of related structure and properties, etc.) as well as draw overall conclusions. o


  • symbol name observation species
    TSA1 Thiol-Specific Antioxidant 1 A gain-of-function allele of peroxiredoxin (thioredoxin peroxidase, Tsa1) causes a dominant oxidative stress-resistance and robust premature aging phenotype with reduced mean lifespan. These effect is not provoked by altered Tsa1 levels, nor can it be stimulated by deletion, haploinssufficiency or overexpression of wild-type allele [20729566]. Disruption of TSA1 shortens chronological lifespan [15129730]. Replicative lifespan extension by DR in sir2;fob1 double mutant is reduced by TSA1 deletion mutant. Wild-type cells require TSA1 to fully extend lifespan. Mutation in CDC35 (adenylate cyclase), a genetic mimetic of DR, is dependent on TSA1 to extend lifespan [21884982]. Budding yeast
    aak-2 AMP-Activated Kinase 2 AAK-2 could be a sensor that couples energy levels and insulin-like signals to lifespan. aak-2(ok524) knockout mutants have a 12% and 18% shorter mean and maximum lifespan, respectively as well as faster age-dependent accumulation of a lipofuscin-like fluorescent pigment in the intestine [15574588]. sDR increases AMP:ATP ratio. aak-2 mutation suppresses lifespan extension and delay of the decline in locomotor activity resulting from sDR. A constitutive active mutation of aak-2 is sufficient to cause increase stress resistance as well as to significantly extend lifespan. Both increased stress resistance and extended lifespan is reverted in daf-16 knockdown by RNAi. sod-3 mRNA is increased by constitutive active form of aak-2 and decreased by aak-2 mutation. The increase in sod-3 mRNA is dependent on expression of DAF-16. Worm and human AMPK phosphorylate DAF-16 (greatly enhanced by presence of AMP) at least in six residues (T166, S202, S314, S321, T463 and S466) [17900900]. aak-2 mutation cancels out the lifespan extension effect of sDR and PD, regardless of the concentration of bacteria or peptones. bDR significantly extends lifespan of aak-2 mutants, but to lesser extent than that of wild-type. eat-2 mutation extends the lifespan of aak-2 mutants to the same extent than that of wild-type. Resveratrol does not increase lifespan of aak-2 mutants [19239417]. daf-2(m577);aak-2(ok524) double mutant has a lifespan that is indistinguishable from those of aak-2(ok524) single mutant. Transgenic animals with a higher aak-2 gene dose live on average 13% longer with a maximum lifespan extension on up to 25% [15574588]. Nematode
    aakg-2 AMP-Activated protein Kinase Gamma subunit 2 aakg-2 overexpression extends mean, median, and maximum lifespan by 47, 45, and 35%. Overexpression of aakg-2 toegther with D. rerio ucp2 was non-additive with sDR [22737090]. Nematode
    Ilp5 Insulin-like peptide 5 Abundance of Ilp5 mRNA is reduced under DR. Ilp5 null mutants have a normal lifespan under AL and a normal DR response. Ilp2 Ilp3 Ilp5 triple null mutants fail to have a normal response to DR. Their response is right shifted, with mutants being shorter-lived compared to wild-type on low but longer-lived on high yeast concentrations [20195512]. Fruit fly
    atf1 activating transcription factor 1 Activation of transcription factor Atf1 by Sty1 is required for chronological lifespan extension and enhanced heat stress resistance by DR. Deleting atf1 cancels out DR-mediated chronological lifespan extension and enhanced heat stress resistance. Overexpressing atf1 is not sufficient to promote chronological lifespan extension in cells lacking sty1 [20075862]. Fission yeast
    ADE4 ADEnine requiring 4 ade4 mutation extends chronological lifespan, but not replicative lifespan, and is non-additive with 0.5% glucose or amino-acid DR on chronological lifespan extension. ADE4 deletion in atg16 mutants results only in a partial extension of the chronological lifespan by 0.5% glucose DR [20421943]. Budding yeast
    AIM4 Altered Inheritance rate of Mi 4 AIM4 (alias SOY1) deletion increases chronological and replication lifespan, which is non-additive with DR. On AL mean and maximum replicative lifespan are extended by 63 and 69%, respectively. DR appears to decrease aim4-induced replication lifespan extension, indicating a negative interaction. aim4 mutation does not change DR-induced chronological lifespan extension [21584246]. Budding yeast
    aqp-1 AQuaPorin or aquaglyceroporin related 1 aqp-1 expression changes in response to glucose or glycerol. Similar to daf-16 and hsf-1 mutants, aqp-1 mutants were short-lived, and their short lifespan was not further decreased by glucose. Overexpression of aqp-1::GFP rescues short lifespan of aqp-1 deletion mutants and partially prevented glucose from shortening lifespan. Glucose or glycerol feeding downregulates aqp-1 in wild-type. In daf-16 and/or hsf-1 mutants aqp-1 is repressed and glucose feeding does not significantly affect its expression. aqp-1 mutation does not further decrease the short lifespan of daf-16 and/or hsf-1 mutants. aqp-1 transgene is expressed in pharynx and intestine (which behaves as entire endoderm of animal, including adipose tissues). Dietary glucose does not cause significant differences in levels of glucose or glycerol in wild-type vs. aqp-1 mutants [19883616]. Nematode
    ATG10 AuTophaGy related 10 ATG10 deletion cancels out replicative lifespan extension by DR [18690010]. Budding yeast
    ATG11 AuTophaGy related 11 ATG11 deletion extends replicative lifespan under AL and abrogates DR-lifespan extension [18690010]. Budding yeast
    ATG17 AuTophaGy related 17 ATG17 deletion decreases replicative lifespan under AL and blocks DR-lifespan extension. ATG17 mutant's replicative lifespan decreases by 70% on DR [18690010]. Budding yeast
    ATG2 AuTophaGy related 2 ATG2 deletion prevents chronological lifespan extension induced by amino-acid DR [20421943]. Budding yeast
    cbp-1 CBP/p300 homolog 1 bDR and daf-2 mutation induce cbp-1 expression. There is no decrease in cbp-1 expression in whole C. elegans during aging. Overexpression of cbp-1 does not significantly affect lifespan. daf-16 RNAi and cbp-1 RNAi reduce average lifespan under AL to about the same extent. Inhibiting cbp-1 via RNAi by 50%, specifically in adult phase and completely blocks lifespan extension of DD, bDR as well as eat-2, glp-1 and clk-1 mutation, but only partially that of daf-2 mutation and not at all that of cold. cbp-1 RNAi completely blocks the lifespan increase by daf-2 mutation under bDR. cbp-1 RNAi blocks the delay of other age-related pathologies by bDR. cbp-1 RNAi prevents protective effects of bDR and accelerates ABeta42-related pathology. bDR significantly delays onset of paralysis even in presence of cbp-1 RNAi. cbp-1 RNAi specifically in adults completely blocks lifespan extension by three distinct protocols of DR (mutation of eat-2), partly by daf-2 mutation but not of cold and blocks the delay of other age-related pathologies by bDR. cbp-1 RNAi has no effect on lifespan in daf-16 hypomorphic mutants. Combining cbp-1 and daf-16 RNAi in wild-type produces similar lifespan as either alone. Resistance to oxidative stress is strikingly reduced by cbp-1 RNAi and cbp-1 RNAi attenuates the protection against oxidative stress by bDR. cbp-1 RNAi accelerates accumulation of autofluorescence, but has no effect on activity, egg laying, or pharyngeal pumping. cbp-1 RNAi does not block induction of daf-16 or hsf-1 by bDR, but does block the induction of DAF-16 target gene, sod-3, and HSF-1 target gene, sip-1 by bDR. cbp-1 RNAi blocks induction of sod-3 expression by daf-2 RNAi. cbp-1 RNAi does not block the increased Nile Red staining produced by daf-2 mutation, but enhanced Nile Red staining. cbp-1 RNAi blocks the effect of bDR on metabolic gene expression from glycolysis towards beta-oxidation. Drugs that enhance histone acetylation increase lifespan and reduce ABeta42-related pathologies, but these protective effects are completely blocked by cbp-1 RNAi. cbp-1 RNAi decreases H4 Lys 5 acetylation and blocks the extension of lifespan as well as delays the onset of paralysis by ABeta1-42 transgene under AL and bDR by sodium butyrate (NaB) and trichostatin (TSA). cbp-1 RNAi does produce dye-filling defects in all C. elegans amphid neurons (ASI, ADL, ASK, AWB, ASH, and ASJ) [19924292]. Nematode
    bec-1 BEClin (human autophagy) homolog 1 bec-1 is required for normal dauer morphogenesis and lifespan extension. Knockdown of bec-1 via RNA interference results in a shortened mean and maximum lifespan by 14 and 5% [12958363]. bec-1 RNAi does not significantly change the lifespan of wild-type, but completely suppresses the longevity phenotype of eat-2 mutation [17912023; 18282106] and prevents lifespan extension by daf-2(e1370) mutation [12958363]. bec-1 RNAi causes the formation of abnormal dauers in a daf-2(e1379) background [12958363]. Nematode
    PNC1 Pyrazinamidase/NiCotinamidase 1 Cells with 5 copies of PNC1 have a 70% longer replicative lifespan which is cancelled out by SIR2 deletion. PNC1 is upregulated under glucose DR [12736687]. Pnc1 reduces cellular nicotinamide levels, a product and noncompetitive inhibitor of Sir2 deacetylation reaction. Overexpression of PNC1 suppresses the effect of exogenously added nicotinamide on Sir2-dependent silencing at HM loci, telomeres and rDNA loci [12736687; 14729974]. Pnc1 catalyses the breakdown of nicotinamide to nicotinate and ammonia [12736687]. Deletion of PNC1 shortens replicative lifespan approximately by 10% [12736687] and largely prevents replicative lifespan extension of 0.5% glucose restriction. 0.5% glucose restriction slightly extends median replicative lifespan (by 10 - 15%) but not maximum replicative lifespan in pnc1Delta [14724176]. PNC1 overexpression suppresses the inhibitory effect of exogenously added NAM on silencing, lifespan, and Hst1-mediated transcriptional repression [14729974]. Increased expression of PNC1 is both necessary and sufficient for replicative lifespan extension by DR and low-intensity stress. Under non-stressing conditions (2% glucose, 30 degree Celsius), a strain with additional copies of PNC1 (5XPNC1) has 70% longer replicative lifespan than the wild-type and some cells live for more than 70 divisions. Neither DR nor heat stress further increase the lifespan of the 5XPNC1 strain [12736687]. PNC1 deletion decreases chronological lifespan [17110466]. Budding yeast
    CG11015 CG11015 is translational upregulated upon DR. Under rich nutritional conditions lifespan of CG11015 RNAi treated animals is indistinguishable from that of controls, while upon DR, lifespan extension is diminished in males and females [19804760]. Fruit fly
    cha-1 abnormal CHoline Acetyltransferase 1 cha-1 encodes a choline acetyltransferase which is expressed in motor [18041778] neurons and downregulated in space. Mutation or RNA interference of cha-1 extends lifespan on NGM agar covered with killed or live bacteria as well as in liquid culture medium [22768380]. cha-1(TY1652) mutation extends mean, 75%ile, and maximum lifespan by 23, 29, and 38%. The cha-1(PR1152) allele extends mean, 75%ile, and maximum lifespan by 22-49, 18-25, and 11-21%. Lifespan extension by cha-1 mutation is not abolished by daf-16 RNAi inactivation. eat-2 RNAi shortens the lifespan of cha-1 mutants. RNAi inactivation of cha-1 reduces Q35 aggregation [22768380]. cha-1 participates in determining pharyngeal pumping rate to affect food intake [6698395]. Nematode
    ckr-1 CholecystoKinin Receptor homolog 1 ckr-1 RNAi significantly reduces lifespan of eat-2 but not that of age-1 nor clk-1 mutants [19783783]. Nematode
    ckr-2 CholecystoKinin Receptor homolog 2 ckr-2 RNAi significantly reduces the lifespan of eat-2 but not that of age-1 nor clk-1 mutants [19783783]. Nematode
    wis1 Constitutive active mutation of wis1 extends chronological lifespan and there is no further beneficial effect of DR [20075862]. Fission yeast
    cup-4 Coelomocyte UPtake defective 4 cup-4 RNAi or overexpession reduces oxidative stress resistance and shortens lifespan of wild-type under AL. cup-4 RNAi significantly reduces the extended lifespan of eat-2 mutants, but failed to block lifespan extension of age-1 or clk-1 mutants. Lifespan of cup-4 mutants increases only moderately by sDR [19783783]. Nematode
    cup-5 Coelomocyte UPtake defective 5 cup-5 RNAi significantly decreases lifespan of eat-2 specifically, whereas lifespan of age-1 or clk-1 mutants are not affected [19783783]. Nematode
    daf-2 abnormal DAuer Formation 2 daf-2 mutants live more than twice as long as controls. daf-2(sa189) mutation extends mean and maximum lifespan by 133 and 129%, respectively, when shifted to 20 degree Celsius. The daf-2(e1370) mutation extends mean and maximum lifespan by 32 and 119%, respectively, when shifted to 25 degree Celsius and by 110 and 145%, respectively, at 20 degree Celsius. daf-2(sa189) mutation extends mean lifespan by 67% as well as maximum lifespan [8247153]. This lifespan extension requires the activity of daf-16 [8247153]. The lifespan extension of daf-2(e1370) mutants is cancelled out by daf-16(m26) mutation. daf-2 mutants still exhibit a long lifespan after ablation of the gonad and germ cells. [8247153]. daf-2(e1370) increases mean (95-118%) and maximum (165%) lifespan [18828672]. RNAi against daf-2 extends mean and maximum lifespan by 47 and 65% [12471266]. daf-2 mutation extends lifespan of wild-type and eat-2 mutants [9789046]. Long lifespan of daf-2 insulin receptor mutation is further extended by sDR. However, daf-2 mutation is not a null mutation, therefore it is still possible that part of sDR-induced increase in lifespan might depend on insulin receptor pathway [17900900]. DR by bacterial dilution extends lifespan of daf-2 mutants [17538612]. IF does not markedly extend lifespan of daf-2 mutants [19079239]. 2% glucose reduce fractions of animals that become dauers at 22.5 degree Celsius in daf-2 mutants. Glucose almost completely suppresses lifespan extension of daf-2 ligand binding domain and tyrosine kinase mutants back to wild-type levels [19883616]. daf-2 mutation increases average lifespan by 157%. Under AL daf-2 mutation increases lifespan by 30%. bDR increases lifespan by 65%. daf-2 mutation further increases lifespan under bDR by 40%. Resistance to oxidative stress is reduced daf-2 mutation [19924292]. daf-2 RNAi increases mean lifesapn by 89% [18828672]. daf-2(m577) mutation increases mean and maximum lifespan by 33 and 29%, respectively, while daf-2(e1370) mutation increases mean and maximum lifespan by 101 and 181%, respectively [16782295]. DR from eat-2(ad465) mutation has an addative effect on lifespan of daf-2(e1370) adults, but not on lifespan of daf-2(e1368) adults [18043747]. Mutation in daf-2 in combination with mutation of daf-12 results in nearly 300% increase in lifespan [7789761]. daf-2 mutants are dauer constitutive [7219552] and exhibit reduced brood size [9504918; 9725835]. daf-2 mutants synergize with germ line ablation for lifespan extension [10360574] and also exhibit synergy with clk-1 mutation for lifespan prolongation [8638122]. All the phenotypes of daf-2 mutants are suppressed by mutation of daf-16 [8247153; 8601482; 7789761; 9725835; 9504918]. Mutation of daf-2 increases expression of sod-3 [10428762]. daf-2(e1370) increases mean lifespan by 146% [23097426]. Reducing expression of daf-2 in the adult stage alone extends lifespan [12399591]. Nematode
    DAP2 Dipeptidyl AminoPeptidase 2 DAP2 deletion decreases mean and maximum replicative lifespan under AL by 19 and 36%, respectively, and cancels out the lifespan extending effect of moderate DR [22912585]. Budding yeast
    BMH1 Brain Modulosignalin Homologue 1 Deleting BMH1 extends chronological lifespan by 25% and is associated with activated stress response, decreased ROS levels and increased heat-shock-element-driven transcription activity. BMH1 deletion was non-additive with the genetic DR mimetic cdc25 and tor1. Water starvation (a form of extreme DR) extends chronological lifespan of BMH1 mutant even more as it does in wild-type. BMH1 genetically interacts with DR as well as TOR- and PKA-signaling pathways to regulate lifespan. Phosphorylation of Ser238 on Bmh1 increases during chronological aging, which is delayed by DR or reduced TOR activity [19805817]. Budding yeast
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    • 25 of 172 factors
    Factors are an extension of GenAge and GenDR.

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