Factors

We need to know every factor which determines lifespan.

Lifespan factors often but not always originate from defined genetic elements. They are not just genes, by definition they can be anything for which a Classifications schema can be build for that is related to the regulation of lifespan, such entities may include Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism, transcript variants, proteins and their complexes, compounds (i.e. small molecules like metabolites and drugs), etc. A factor should be based on a defined molecular entity or genomic position and been classified. It shall be highly flexible and scalable Concept.

While individual lifespan factors within each species or precise defined molecular entities will be captured within the Lifespan App, Data Entries of the Data App may summarize for instance the relevance of each factor class (e.g. homologous group; chemical derivate of related structure and properties, etc.) as well as draw overall conclusions. o

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    Drug (2)  
  • symbol name observation species
    DATS Diallyl Trisulfide DATS increases longevity apparently by enhancing skn-1. Treatment with 5-10 μM DATS increases lifespan even when treatment is started during young adulthood. DATS increases the lifespan of daf-2 and daf-16 mutants, but not that of eat-2 mutants. DATS treatment leads to the induction of the skn-1 target gene gst-4 and this induction is dependent on skn-1. DATS effect on lifespan is dependent on skn-1 activity in both intestine and ASI neurons [21296648].
    alpha-LA Lipoic Acid In rats, LA confers a memory effect, by fixing the lifespan of previous feeding regimen. When animals are switched early in life (12 months) from DR to AL and supplemented with α-lipoic acid the DR typical lifespan extension is maintained, but switching early from AL supplemented with α-lipoic acid to DR blocks the lifespan extending effect [18486188]. LA exhibits the ability to compensate for age-related, long-term memory deficits in old rats [8309958] and improves the memory and learning in progeriod mice [15627516]. Culturing LA, protects neurons against death induced by hyperoxia, glutamate, iron and H2O2 [12087131; 11602326]. House mouse
    Met Metformin In nematode metformin treatment extends healthspan, slows lipofuscin accumulation, extends mean lifespan and prolongs healthful locomotory ability in a dose-dependent manner as well as reduces fecundity. AMPK and its activating kinase LKB1 are essential for these health benefits. Oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor SKN-1/Nrf2 is essential for metformin-confered healthspan too as it must be expressed in both neurons and intestines [20090912]. In fruit fly feeding metformin to adult results in robust AMPK activation and reduces lipid stores, but does not increase lifespan in either males or females. Administration of high concentration are even toxic [23077661]. Chronic treatment of female transgenic HER-2/neu mice with metformin slightly decreases food consumption but fails to reduce body weight or temperature, slows down age-related rise in blood glucose and triglycerides level, as well as the age-related switch-off of estrous function, prolongs mean lifespan by 8% (p < 0.05), the mean lifespan of last 10% survivors by 13.1% and maximum lifespan by 1 month. Metformin treatment significantly decreases incidence and size of mammary adenocarcinomas and increases the mean latency of the tumors [16125352]. Chronic treatment of female outbred SHR mice with metformin slightly modified food consumption but decreases the body weight after the age of 20 months, slows down the age-related switch-off of estrous function, increases mean lifespan by 37.8% mean lifespan of the last 10% survivor by 20.8%, and maximum lifespan by 2.8 month (+10.3%). Treatment with metformin fails to influence blood estradiol concentration and spontaneous tumor incidence in female SHR mice [18728386]. In female SHR mice, metformin increases lifespan lifespan and postpones tumors when started at young and middle but not at old age. Chronic treatment of female outbred SHR mice with metformin started at the age of 3, 9 or 15 months decreases body temperature and postpones age-related switch-off of estrous function. Treatment with metformin started at the age of 3 months increases mean lifespan by 14% and maximum lifespan by 1 month. Treatment started at the age of 9 months insignificantly increases lifespan by only 6%, whereas the treatment started at the age of 15 months fails to increase lifespan. The mean lifespan of tumor-free mice increases by 21% (started at 3 months), by 7% (started at 9 months) and in contrast is reduced by 13% (started at 15 months). If started at 3 and 9 months, metformin delays the first tumors by 22% and 25%, correspondingly [21386129]. Transgenic FVB/N female mice carrying HER-2/neu mammary cancer gene receiving metformin with drinking water 5 days a week starting from the age of 2 months exhibit a slight reduced food consumption without change in water consumption and dynamics of weight gain. Their mean lifespan increases by 8% in 10% of the long-lived mice it is prolonged y 13.1% and the maximum lifespan is prolonged by 1 month. The total incidence of mammary adenocarcinoma and their multiplicity does not change under the effect of metformin, while the latency of tumor development increases and the mean diameter of tumors decreases [16224592]. Chronic treatment of inbred 129/Sv mice with metformin slightly modifies food consumption but fails to influence the dynamics of body weight, decreases by 13.4% the mean lifespan of make mice and slightly increases the mean lifespan of female mice (by 4.4%). Metformin treatment fails to influence tumor incidence in male 129/Sv mice, decreases by 3.5 times the incidence of malignant neoplasms in female mice while somehowwhat stimulate formation of benign vascualr tumors in the latter [21164223]. In rats metformine treatment reduces body weight significantly (despite similar food intake) but fails to significantly extend the lifespan at any quantile (25th, 50th, 75th, or 90th), overall or maximum lifespan (p > 0.05) [20304770].
    Res Resveratrol Resveratrol significantly extends the lifespan of yeast [12939617]. Resveratrol supplementation prolongs the lifespan of nematodes [15254550; 17460219], but not in any case [17875315]. In fruit flies supplementation with resveratrol extends the lifespan [15254550], but not in always [17875315]. In Nothobranchius furzeri a maximum dose of resveratrol increases the median lifespan by 56% [16461283]. Resveratrol conteracts the detrimental effects of a high-fat diet in mice an decreases the risk of death by 30% and thereby reverting it to the level of normal diet. It also partially corrected a subset of the abnormal gene expression profile and insulin as well as glucose metabolism [17086191]. Although resveratrol has range a of beneficial effects in elderly mice, it does not increase the longevity of *ad libitum* fed mice when started midlife [18599363]. Even at high doses and when started in young adulthood reseveratrol supplementation does not increase lifespan on a normal diet [17578509; 20974732].
    BRE Black rice extract In fruit fly, 30 mg/ml black rice extract prolonges mean lifespan by 14% which is accompanied with mRNA up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2, CAT and Rpn11 Rpn11 and with downregulation of Mth [22930061].
    Oligomycin In fruit fly, Oligomycin feeding exends lifespan on ad libitum and prevents an increase in longevity under DR (started in the adulthood) in males [19968629].
    Rapa Rapamycin In budding yeast treatment with rapamcyin increases mean and maximum replicative lifespan by 19 and 16% Rapamycin fails to extend the lifespan of sir2 mutants or NAM treated wild-type cells [20947565]. Rapamcyin treatment increases mean chronological lifespan by by approximately by 80% in BY4742 [22790951]. Rapamycin extends chronological lifespan proportional with increasing concentrations from 100 pg/mL to 1 ng/mL [16418483]. Treatment with rapamcyin in nemaotdes increases mean, median, 75th %ile and maximum lifespan by 19-29, 17-29, 24-32 an 19%, respectively on OP50. On HT115 rapamycyin extends mean, median and 75th %ile of lifespan by 8-36, 4-46 and 12-44%, respectively. Rapamycin robustly increases lifespan in two daf-16 mutants (mgDf47 and mu86) with or without FUdR and with growth on either the standard strain OP50 or the feeding RNAi strain HT115 [22560223]. Treatment of Drosophila imago with rapamycin induces increases of median (by 5-6%) lifespan (p < 0.01) in males and females, respectively and increase of maximum lifespan (by 33%) in females (p < 0.01) [22661237]. Rapamcyin increases mouse lifespan even when administrated late in life [19587680]. Low dose of rapamycin (5 microM) slightly increase the median and maximum lifespan in fruit fly [20017609]. Rapamcyin increases mouse lifespan and healthspan even when administrated late in life (20 months) [19587680]. Rapamycin enhances learning and memory in young mice and improves these faculties in old mice thereby negating the normal decline in these functions with age. Rapamycin boost levels of neurotransmitters associated with neural plasticity. Rapamycin also lowered anxiety and depressive-like behaviour at all ages from 4, 12 and 28 months. "Happy, feel-good" neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine are all significantly augmented in the midbrains of rapamycin treated mice [http://denigma.de/url/37]. Treatment with rapamycin increased lifespan and suppresses spontanous tumorgenesis in inbred female mice [22107964].
    • 7 factors
    Factors are an extension of GenAge and GenDR.

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