Factors

We need to know every factor which determines lifespan.

Lifespan factors often but not always originate from defined genetic elements. They are not just genes, by definition they can be anything for which a Classifications schema can be build for that is related to the regulation of lifespan, such entities may include Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism, transcript variants, proteins and their complexes, compounds (i.e. small molecules like metabolites and drugs), etc. A factor should be based on a defined molecular entity or genomic position and been classified. It shall be highly flexible and scalable Concept.

While individual lifespan factors within each species or precise defined molecular entities will be captured within the Lifespan App, Data Entries of the Data App may summarize for instance the relevance of each factor class (e.g. homologous group; chemical derivate of related structure and properties, etc.) as well as draw overall conclusions. o

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  • symbol name observation species
    nhr-62 Nuclear Hormone Receptor family NHR-62 is required for metabolic and physiologic responses associated with DR-induced longevity. *nhr-62* mediates the longevity response of *eat-2* mutants and blunts the longevity by bacterial food dilution [Heestand, et al. 2012]. Mutation in *nhr-62* suppresses the lifespan extension of eat-2(ad465) animals (p<0.001) [Heestand et al. 2013]. Wild-type (N2) worms with extrachromosomal array dhEx627 (carrying a wild-type nhr-62) exhibit a significant increase in lifespan compared to wild-type (p<0.001) [Heestand et al. 2013]. Nematode
    ttll-9 Tubulin Tyrosine Ligase Like Knockdown of ttll-9 throughout the entire life increases the lifespan by 3% [23698443]. Nematode
    Spargel Tissue-specific overexpression of dPGC-1 in stem and progenitor cells within the digestive tract of females flies extends the mean and maximum lifespan of females by up to 33% and 37%. Those mutants display a delay in the onset of aging-related changes in the intestine, leading to improved tissue homoeostasis in old flies [22055505]. Fruit fly
    Zw Zwischenferment Mean lifespan of G6PD overexpressor flies is extended in comparison with driver and responder controls, armadillo-GAL4 (up to 38%), Tubulin-GAL4 (up to 29%), C23-GAL4 (up to 27%), da-GAL4 (up to 24%), D42-GAL4 (up to 18%) and Appl-GAL4 (up to 16%). The maximum lifespan is also increased [18809674]. G6PD enzymatic activity as well as levels of NADPH, NADH, and the GSH/GSSG ration are increased [18809674]. Fruit fly
    Pten Increased Pten and 4E-BP activity in muscles is extends the lifespan [21111239]. Fruit fly
    Prx5 Peroxiredoxin 5 Prx5 overexpression causes an increase in mean and median lifespan under normal conditions. It also leads to a small increase in maximum lifespan. dprx5(-/-) null mutants are comparatively more susceptible to oxidative stress, have higher incidence of apoptosis, and a shortened mean lifespan, but thee is no significant difference in maximum lifespan (10% survival) [21826223]. Fruit fly
    Naam Nicotinamide amidase Naam overexpression increases mean and maximum lifespan by 30% in both females and males. The lifespan extension is reversed by Sir2 mutants, indicating the it is dependent on Sir2 [18678867]. Fruit fly
    MTF-1 Metal response element-binding Transcription Factor-1 MTF-1 overexpression in either the peripheral nervous system or motorneurons extends both mean and maximum lifespan by 40% in males [18775584]. Fruit fly
    magu Adult-specific overexpression of magu increases lifespan by 5-30% and modulates late-age fecundity [19011900]. Fruit fly
    Hsc70-3 Heat shock protein cognate 3 Overexpression of Hsc70-3 increases average female lifespan by 27% [18059160]. Fruit fly
    hebe Adult-specific overexpression of hebe increases the lifespan by 5-30% and modulates late-age female fecundity. Female and male mean lifespan is up to 11% and 24% higher [19011900]. Fruit fly
    GstS1 Glutathione S transferase S1 GstS1 overexpression increases the mean lifespan by 33% [18059160]. Fruit fly
    fh frataxin homolog Overexpression of fh in the mitochondria of female transgenic animals increases antioxidant capability, resistance to oxidative stress insults, and longevity [18258192]. Fruit fly
    bam bag of marbles Bam mutants have an extended lifespan due to germ cell loss. Lifespan of females is on average up to 50% higher and that of males on average s up to 27.8% higher [18434551]. Fruit fly
    Atg2 Autophagy-specific gene 2 Atg2 overexpression increases average female lifespan by 28% [18059160]. Fruit fly
    Nudt1 nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 1 hMTH1-Tg mice express high levels of the hMTH1 hydrolase that degrades 8-oxoGTP and 8-oxoGTP and excludess 8-oxoguanine from both DNA and RNA. hMTH1-overexpresing mice have significantly lower steady-state levels of 8-oxoguanine in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of several organs, including the brain. hMTH1 overexpression prevents the age-dependent accumulation of DNA 8-oxoguanine that occurs in the wild-type mice. These lower levels of oxidized guanines are associated with increased longevity and hMTH1-Tg animals live significantly longer than their wild-type littermates [23648059]. House mouse
    Jafrac1 thioredoxin peroxidase 1 Neuronal overexpression of Jafrac1 significantly increases both mean and maximum lifespan, while neuronal knockdown as well as loss of function mutation, causes a reduction in lifespan by 30%. The mean lifespan is 26% and 29% higher in females and males, respectively. The maximum lifespan is increased by 22% and 26% in females and males, respectively [19720829]. There is a consistent and significant lifespan extension (15% mean lifespan increase) in both males and females when Jafrac1 is overexpressed in somatic cells. Jafrac1 overexpression using the weaker 5961FS driver moderately but significantly extends lifespan [20976250]. Fruit fly
    EXO1 exonuclease 1 The rs1776180 C allele in the promoter of EXO1 is significantly enriched in female Germans centenarians and this can be replicated in 445 female French centenarians. The C allele leads to the loss of binding site for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor E47, resulting in higher EXO1 expression [19698732].EXO1 was found to be associated with longevity [19698732]. EXO1 was not found to be associated with longevity [23770741]. Human
    mir-246 Mutating mir-246 decreases mean and maximum lifespan by 12%, while its overexpression increases mean and maximum lifespan by 6 and 5 - 14%, respectively [21129974]. Nematode
    mir-71 Loss and gain-of-function of mir-71 decreases and increases lifespan, respectively [21129974]. mir-71 mutants have a reduced lifespan with 40% decrease in mean lifespan, while extra copies of mir-71 extend the lifespan with an increase in lifespan by 15 - 25% [22482727], Loss of mir-71 function suppresses the long lifespan of glp-1(e2141) mutants [22482727], During adulthood mir-71 is strongly expressed in the intestine, body wall muscles and neurons. mir-71 is upregulated in aging adults [22482727], Nematode
    VPH2 Vacuolar pH 2 Overexpression of VPH2 increases the levels of assembled V-ATPase at the vacuolar membrane, increases vacuolar acidity and suppresses age-induced mitochondrial dysfunction of aged cells (17 or 18 cell divisions) which requires the V-ATPase activity. VPH2 overexpression significantly increases mean, median and maximum replicative lifespan by 23, 25 and 34%, respectively [23172144]. Budding yeast
    AVT1 Amino acid Vacuolar Transport 1 Overexpressing or deleting AVT1 is sufficient to extend or shorten replicative lifespan, respectively [23172144]. Overexpression of AVT1 prevents mitochondrial dysfunction, prevents alterations in mitochondrial structure and ΔΨ of aged cells even through the vacuolar acidity is reduced in these cells. AVT1 overexpression extends the mean, median and maximum replicative lifespan by 28, 28, and 22%, respectively [23172144]. Deletion of AVT1 accelerates the development of age-induced mitochondrial dysfunction without effecting the kinetics of vacuolar acidity decline and prevents the suppression of mitochondrial dysfunction by VMA1 and VPH2 overexpression without affecting vacuolar acidity. AVT1 deletion decreases mean, median and maximum replicative lifespan by 21, 22, and 12%, respectively [23172144]. Budding yeast
    VMA1 Vacuolar Membrane Atpase 1 Overexpression of VMA1 increases vacuolar acidity and suppresses age-induced mitochondrial dysfunction of aged cells (17 or 18 cell divisions) which requires the V-ATPase activity. VMA1 overexpression significantly increases mean, median and maximum lifespan by 39 - 45%, 39 - 48% and 50 - 60%, respectively. DR (0.5% glucose restriction) does not further increase the lifespan of VMA1 overexpression strain [23172144]. Budding yeast
    CG13890 Overexpression of CG13890 (DCI) throughout the whole body increases mean and median lifespan by 35 and 31%, but decreases maximum lifespan by 6%, increases stress resistant (to paraquat and starvation), consistently reduces the mortality rate across adult ages and reduces the lifespan extension of DR by 15% [22997544]. CG6783 overexpression increases the dFOXO nuclear localization in the fat-body. mRNA levels of dFOXO target genes l(2)efl and 4E-BP in the adult whole bodies increases in response to overexpression of CG6783 [22997544]. Fruit fly
    fabp fatty acid bindin protein Overexpression of fabp (CG6783) throughout the whole body increases mean, median and maximum lifespan by 77, 81 and 13%, increases stress resistant (to paraquat but not starvation), consistently reduces mortality rate across adult ages and reduces the lifespan extension of DR by 12% [22997544]. fabp overexpression increases the dFOXO nuclear localization in the fat-body. mRNA levels of dFOXO target genes l(2)efl and 4E-BP in the adult whole bodies increases in response to overexpression of fabp [22997544]. Females of the genotype Act-GS-Gal4 > UAS-CG6783 exhibit an increase in median lifespan compared to uninduced control in response to feeding with RU486-containing food from day 3 of adulthood (P < 0.0001). Mean lifespan is extended by 10, while maximum lifespan is decreased by 11% [22997544]. Fruit fly
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    • 25 of 170 factors
    Factors are an extension of GenAge and GenDR.

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