Factors

We need to know every factor which determines lifespan.

Lifespan factors often but not always originate from defined genetic elements. They are not just genes, by definition they can be anything for which a Classifications schema can be build for that is related to the regulation of lifespan, such entities may include Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism, transcript variants, proteins and their complexes, compounds (i.e. small molecules like metabolites and drugs), etc. A factor should be based on a defined molecular entity or genomic position and been classified. It shall be highly flexible and scalable Concept.

While individual lifespan factors within each species or precise defined molecular entities will be captured within the Lifespan App, Data Entries of the Data App may summarize for instance the relevance of each factor class (e.g. homologous group; chemical derivate of related structure and properties, etc.) as well as draw overall conclusions. o

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  • symbol name observation species
    mir-277 Constitutive miR-277 expression shortens lifespan and synthetically lethal with reduced insulin signaling, indicating that metabolic control underlies this phenotype. Transgenic inhibition with a miRNA sponge construct also shortens lifespan [23669073]. miR-277 is downregulated during adult life [23669073]. mir-277 controls branched-chain amino acid catabolism and as a result it can modulate the activity of TOR kinase [23669073]. Fruit fly
    LBR Lamin B receptor Overexpression of Lamin B receptor in the adult muscle and in the abdominal fat body results in a 54% and 46% reduction of mean lifespan, respectively [18494863]. Fruit fly
    kuk kugelkern Overexpression of kugelkern in the adult muscle results in a 60% reduction of mean lifespan [18494863]. Fruit fly
    CG3776 Both overexpression and underexpression of CG3776 (alias Jhebp29) reduces the mean lifespan, where the reduction in males is slightly higher. The lifespan of male flies with under- and overexpressed CG3776 is reduced by 38.8 and 42.6%, respectively when compared with Oregon R flies.The lifespan of female flies with under- and overexpressed CG3776 is reduced by 31.6 and 35%, respectively when compared to Oregon R flies. Among the males and females, relatively to Oregon R and EP835/CyO, the age-specific survival of EP835/EP835 and EP835/Gal4 is reduced in both log-rank and Wilcoxon tests (P < 0.001); survival of EP835/EP835 and EP835/Gal4 differed using the log-rank-test (male: P<0.001; female: P=0.027) [18275960]. Fruit fly
    Gr63a Gustatory receptor 63a Gr63a loss-of-function in female flies leads to 30% extended mean lifespan, increased fat deposition, and enhanced resistance to some (but not all) environmental stresses. Lifespan of males is not extended [20422037]. Overexpression of Gr63a has modest negative effect on lifespan [20422037]. Fruit fly
    DNApol-gamma35 DNA polymerase gamma 35kD Overexpression of DNApol-gamma35 (DNA polymerase gamma) in the nervous system results in a decrease in the median lifespan ranging from 39% to 52% [17999718]. Fruit fly
    GH1 Growth hormone 1 Transgenic mice overexpressing bovine GH1 are bigger than controls and display early onset of pathological changes in the kidneys such glomerulosis and glomerulonephritis as well as signs of premature aging such as a shortened lifespan, increased astrogliosis, shortened reproductive lifepsan and early onset of age-related changes in cognitive function, hypothalamic neurotransmitter turnover, and plasma corticosterone levels [14583653]. Cattle
    mir-239 Mutating mir-239 increases mean and maximum lifespan by 12 and 36%, respectively, whereas overexpressing mir-239 decreases mean and maximum lifespan by 13 and 17 - 33%, respectively [21129974]. Nematode
    OSH3 OxySterol binding protein Homolog 3 Mean replicative lifespan of OSH3 deletion mutant is not significant different from wild type. Overexpression of OSH3 with the promoter of VAC8 shortens mean replicative lifespan ad promotes vacuolar fusion [Xia et al. unpublished]. Budding yeast
    tdp-1 TAR DNA-binding Protein homolog 1 tdp-1(ok803) mutation increases mean and maximum lifespan at 20 degree Celsius but not at 25 degree Celsius. tdp-1(ok803) reduce the lifespan of daf-2(e1370) mutants, but does not does not reduces the lifespan of daf-16(mu86) mutants. RNAi against tdp-1 reduces lifepsna of daf-2(e1370) mutants. tdp-1 overexpression strains have a reduced lifespan at 20 and 25 degree Celsius [Vaccaro et al. 2012]. Nematode
    SAG101 senescence-associated protein 101 Antisense RNA interference of SAG101 in transgenic plants delays the onset of leaf senescence for approximately 4 days, whereas chemical induced overexpression of SAG101 causes precocious senescence in both attached and detached leaves of transgenic plants [11971136].
    MAPT microtubule-associated protein tau Expression of wild-type human MAPT (tau) moderately shortened lifespan. Expression of a mutant form of human MAPT (Arg406 Trp), associated with an early onset familial form of demetia, results in a several shortened lifespan. MAPT is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzeimer's disease and related disorders in humans. Transgenic flies exhibit key features of the human disorders: adult onset, progressive neurodegeneration, early death, enhanced toxicity of mutant tau, accumulation of abnormal tau, and relative anatomic selectivity. However, neurodegeneration occurred without the neurofibrillary formation that is observed in humans disease and some rodent taupathy models [11408621]. Human
    gpa2 Guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-2 subunit gpa2 (alias git8) encodes the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein, which acts downstream of Git3. Git8 activity accelerates aging and inhibits the lifespan-extending effect of DR. Constitutive active mutation of gpa2 decreases chronological lifespan under AL (2% glucose) and almost completely cancels out the lifespan extending effect of DR (0.2% glucose) [19266076]. Fission yeast
    nlp-7 Neuropeptide-Like Protein nlp-7 RNAi or overexpression reduces oxidative stress resistance and shortens lifespan of wild-type under AL. nlp-7 RNAi significantly reduces extended lifespan of eat-2 mutants, but failed to block lifespan extension of age-1 or clk-1 mutants. Lifespan of nlp-7 mutants increases only moderately by sDR [19783783]. nlp-7 expression is induced under DR via the use of a chemically defined axenic medium [17023606] and by sDR [19783783]. Nematode
    cup-4 Coelomocyte UPtake defective 4 cup-4 RNAi or overexpession reduces oxidative stress resistance and shortens lifespan of wild-type under AL. cup-4 RNAi significantly reduces the extended lifespan of eat-2 mutants, but failed to block lifespan extension of age-1 or clk-1 mutants. Lifespan of cup-4 mutants increases only moderately by sDR [19783783]. Nematode
    RPL6A Ribosomal Protein of the Large subunit 6A Deletion of RPL6A decrease mean replicative lifespan by 25% in the alpha strain [18340043; 18423200], but increases mean replicative lifespan by 40% in the remade strain. Its deletion non-significantly increases mean replicative lifespan in the ORF collection [22377630]. Budding yeast
    HES1 Homologous to kES1 1 Deletion of HES1 (alias OSH5) extends replicative lifespan and is non-additive with moderate DR. Elevation of OSH5 levels by an ERG6 promoter reduces mean, median and maximum replicative lifespan by 25, 18 and 29%. HES1 is required for the longevity effect of DR, Perg6-OSH6, Perg6-ERG2 and Perg6-OSH7 (genetic mimetics of DR). Hes1 is upregulated in response to sterol down-regulation including DR. Deletion of OSH5 delays different steps of endocytosis, a sterol-requireing process [Xia et al., unpublished]. Perg6-OSH6 osh5 double mutant have a lifespan significantly shorter than that of Perg6-OSH6 [Xia et al. upublished]. Budding yeast
    GTS1 Glycine Threonine Serine repeat protein 1 Deletion or overexpression of GTS1 shortens replicative lifespan significantly and slightly, respectively (wt:26, Delta:16 and OE:24) [8573138]. Budding yeast
    YDC1 Yeast DihydroCeramidase 1 Overexpression of YDC1 decreases chronological lifespan by 40% [19059240] Budding yeast
    SCP1 S. cerevisiae CalPonin 1 Increasing actin dynamics by deletion of SCP1, encoding an actin bundling protein, increases replicative lifespan by 67% as well as chronological lifespan by 88%, whereas its overexpression leads to elevuated ROS levels and reduces chronological lifespan (in KAY446 strain) [15024029]. SCP1 is related to mammalian SM22/transgelin which is induced during senescence [9570922]. Budding yeast
    AFG3 ATPase Family Gene 3 Deletion of the mitochondrial AAA protease AFG3 increases replicative lifespan by 20% in the alpha and a strains [18340043], but decreases chronological lifespan by 37 - 51% in diploid cells [21447998]. AFG3 deletion changes mean, median and maximum lifespan by 15 to 26% 17 to 30% and -25 to +58%, respectively. AFG3 deletion leads to reduced cytoplasmic mRNA translation and its lifespan extension is independent of Sir2 and Hac1, but requires Gcn4. AFG3 deletion further extends the lifespan of cell deficient in both SIR2 and FOB1, but fails to extend the lifespan of dietary restricted cells or cells lacking GCN4. Gcn4 protein levels are increased in afg3 mutants. The deletion of AFG3 fails to extend the replicative lifespan in the W303AR strain. AFG3 deletion does deletion extend the replicative lifespan at 15°C. Budding yeast
    Trp53 Transformation related protein 53 Mice heterozyogous for an allele of p53 that removes the 5' portion of the protein demonstrate decreased cancer, permature aging phenotypes, and shortened lifespan in the mixed inbred C57BL/6–129/Sv background. It has been proposed that the this allele of p53 results in increased activity/overexpression [11780111]. Decreased activity of Trp53 results in increased cancer and decreased apoptosis. Mutant mice with activated Trp53 display enhanced resistance to spontaneous tumours and signs of premature ageing including reduced lifespan, osteoporosis, organ atrophy and a diminished stress tolerance [11780111]. However, super-p53 mice generate by a transgenic copy of a large genomic segment containing an intact and complete copy of p53 have an ehanced response to DNA damage, are significantly protected from cancer and had no indication of accelerated aging [12426394]. super-Ink4a/Arf/p53 mice have a synergic protection against cancer and delayed aging [Workshop RoSyBa 2011]. House mouse
    Terf2 telomeric repeat binding factor 2 Overexpression results in signs of premature ageing. House mouse
    SNF4 Sucrose NonFermenting 4 Deleting SNF4 extends replicative lifespan by 10-20% in S288C strain [10921902]. Budding yeast
    SNF1 Sucrose NonFermenting 1 Forced overexpression (high-copy 2 micro expression) of SNF1 shortens replicative lifespan to 75% of wild-type and is accompanied by signs of premature ageing, including progressive sterility, enlargement and fragmentation of the nucleus, redistribution of Sir3 to the nucleus, and more rapid accumulation of extrachromosomal rDNA circles [10921902]. SNF1 overexpression also reduced chronological lifespan [19164565]. Deletion of SNF1 increases replicative lifespan by 50% in the alpha strain [19030232], but decreases chronological lifespan [21076178]. Budding yeast
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    • 25 of 32 factors
    Factors are an extension of GenAge and GenDR.

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