Factors

We need to know every factor which determines lifespan.

Lifespan factors often but not always originate from defined genetic elements. They are not just genes, by definition they can be anything for which a Classifications schema can be build for that is related to the regulation of lifespan, such entities may include Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism, transcript variants, proteins and their complexes, compounds (i.e. small molecules like metabolites and drugs), etc. A factor should be based on a defined molecular entity or genomic position and been classified. It shall be highly flexible and scalable Concept.

While individual lifespan factors within each species or precise defined molecular entities will be captured within the Lifespan App, Data Entries of the Data App may summarize for instance the relevance of each factor class (e.g. homologous group; chemical derivate of related structure and properties, etc.) as well as draw overall conclusions. o

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  • symbol name observation species
    Mir34a microRNA mir-34a Increases in aging rat liver, which suppresses the expression of such proteins as Sirt1 and Mgst1, resulting in dysfunction of oxidative stress defense and regulation [21216258] Norway rat
    Mir93 microRNA mir-93 Increases in Aging rat Liver, which suppresses the expression of such proteins as Sirt1 and Mgst1, resulting in dysfunction of oxidative stress defense and regulation [21216258] Norway rat
    CCL2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 CCL2 levels in plasma increase with age and it is part of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype [19648977]. Human
    CCL2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 CCL2 levels are evaluated in old unpaired and young heterochronic (with old animals) paired mice [21886162]. House mouse
    CCL11 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 CCL11 exhibits an age-related increase in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from healthy human individuals between 20 and 90 years [21886162]. Human
    CCL11 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 CCL11 is an age-related systemic factor associated with decreased neurogenesis. Relative levels of CCL11 increase in the plasma during aging an in young mice during Heterochronic Parabiosis [21886162]. House mouse
    Tequila Tequila exhibits a coding region difference unique to animals under experimental evolution selected for longevity [23106705]. Tequila is upregulated with age and microbial infection, while downregulated with oxidative stress [11095759; 17196240; 15475297]. Fruit fly
    Cdkn2a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A Cdkn2a encodes different transcripts involved mostly in cell cycle regulation and cellular senescence [12882406], but it can also act as a tumor suppressor. Its expression level increase with age in rodents [15520862]. super-Ink4a/Arf mice carrying a transgenic copy of a large genomic segment containing an intact and complete copy of the Cdkn2a (a.k.a. Ink4a/Arf) gene are significantly protected from cancer and had no indication of accelerated aging. Cells derived from super-Ink4a/Arf mice have increased resistance to in vitro immortalization and oncogenic transformation [15520276]. Loss of Cdkn2a in mice results in tumour susceptibility [11544530]. Mice deficient in Cdkn2a have smaller age-related decline in self-renewal potential as this process is associated with increasing levels of Cdkn2a [16957738]. Increased levels of p16 are associated with aging (Krishnamurthy et al., 2006; Molofsky et al., 2006) and a bona fide marker of cellular senescence (Collado et al., 2007). p16INK4a accumulates in many tissues as a function of advancing age (Krishnamurthy et al., 2004; Nielsen et al., 1999; Zindy et al., 1997) and is an effector of senescence (Campisi, 2003; Park et al., 2004), p16INK4a is a potent inhibitor of proliferative kinase Cdk4 (Lowe and Sherr, 2003) which is essential for pancreatic ?-cell proliferation in adult mammals (Rane et al., 1999; Tsutsui et al., 1999). p16INK4a constrains islet proliferation and regeneration in an age-dependent manner. Expression of the p16INK4a transcript is enriched in purified islets compared with the exocrine pancreas and islet-specific expression of p16INK4a increases markedly with aging (Krishnamurthy et al., 2006). Aging in mammals is associated with reduced regenerative capacity in tissues that contain stem cells (Chien and Karsenty, 2005) which is probably partially caused by senescence of progenitors with age (Campisi, 2005; Lombard et al., 2005). Progenitor proliferation in subventricular zone and neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb as well as multipotent progenitor frequency and self-renewal potential, all decline with ageing the mouse forebrain. The decline in progenitor frequency and function correlate with increased expression of p16INK4a (Molofsky et al., 2006). Aging p16INK4a-deficient mice exhibit a significantly smaller decline in subventricular zone proliferation, olfactory bulb neurogenesis and the frequency and self-renewal potential of multipotent progenitors (Molofsky et al., 2006). p16 expression in skin cells is significantly lower the the group that has a strong family history of longevity. As such a younger biological age associates with lower levels of p16INKfa positive cells [22612594]. p16 expression increases exponentially with age. Expression of p16INK4a with age does not predict cancer development. p16INK4a activation is a characteristic of all emerging cancers [http://denigma.de/url/3n]. House mouse
    • 8 factors
    Factors are an extension of GenAge and GenDR.

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