Ontologies -is plural of-> Ontology

Created by Hevok on Feb. 23, 2013, 5:12 p.m.


Ontology in a philosophical Context is Study of the Nature of Being, existence or reality in general, as well as of the basic Categories of being and their Relations.

Ontology is singular because it is a study. In Computer Science the Term refers to Knowledge Representation. Therefore, there can be more than one Ontology and thus it can be plural, hence there are Ontologies.

In an Information Technology Context an Ontology is a Model for describing the World that consists of a set of Types, Properties, and Relationship Types.

Ontologies are explicit formal Specifications of the Terms in the Domain and Relations among them [Gruber 1993].

Ontologies on the Web range from large Taxonomies categorizing Web Sites to Categorization of single Entities and their Features.

A single Ontology defines a common Vocabulary for Researchers who need to share Information in a Domain. It includes machine-interpretable Definitions of basic Concepts in the Domain and Relations among them.

The development of an Ontology allows to:

For the Semantic Web and Linked Data the Models are based on the use of RDF, RDFS, and OWL which are used to describe the Types, Properties, and Relationship Types.

Ontologies are also commonly known as RDF "Vocabolaries".

Ontology are Collections of Informations. The term Ontology is co-opted by Artificial Intelligence and Web Researchers, in which an Ontology is a Document or File that formally defines the Relations among Terms. The most typical kind of Ontology for the Web has a Taxonomy and a set of Inference Rules.


Gruber, T.R. (1993). A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specification. Knowledge Acquisition 5: 199-220.


Categories: Concept

Parent: Research

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is plural of

A Term that represents a single Object can have a plural form that represents multiple copies of it. The plural forms usually end with the addition of an "s" but there are many Exceptions like Terms that end with "y" will result in an ending with 'ies' instead of "y". Also singular Terms that end with ss result in plural forms where "ss" is replaced by "sses".


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Ontology (Greek on participle of "to be" and logia Science) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, Existence or Reality, as well as the basic Categories of being and their Relations.

It deals with what is real in the World. Therefore, the basic Question is what does really exists and what can be said to exist? It is a question of general Metaphysics in Philosophy. It is in contrast to the Epistemology that only deals with things of our perceptions, so what we see, what we hear and so on. Often our perceptions are betraying us. We can only experience the world with out perception but sometimes the perceptions might betray us so one has to know what is real in the world, i.e. what is True. To define what is really True and independent of our Perception is what Ontology original was intended to define.

An Ontology is an explicit, formal specification of a shared conceptualization. The Term is borrowed from Philosophy, where an Ontology is a systematic account of Existence. For Artificial Intelligence Systems, what "exists" is that which can be represented.

A Conceptualization is nothing else than a Model. One tries to form a model about a domain one is talking about. Inside this domain one tries to identify relevant Concepts and how this Concepts are related to each other. This model (i.e. the conceptualization) has to be explicit which means all Meanings of all Concepts has to be defined, nothing has to be left out. Everything need to be defined. This Definition must be formal, which means it must be understood by the Machine, i.e. it has to be Machine-Understandable, not only Machine-Readable but must be interpreted correctly. Only if you read it and interpret it correctly means that you understand it. One of the most important thing is that the things one is referring to must be shared among communication partner, so this model of conceptualization must be a shared conceptualization, there must be consensus about the Ontology. This is required otherwise one can not communicate.

For Communication the Semantic Triangle applies. In Language on has a Symbol that stands for a certain Object. However language is ambiguous a term might have multiple Meanings. One can only communicate with other if two or ore communication partners apply a shared Concept (i.e. the same Concept). Then communication and understanding is possible.

Ontology is the most critical enabling Technology in Semantic Web Applications. Basically an Ontology describes Terms, and Types of Relationships between Pairs of Terms. In such an Ontology can be expressed/represented by a List of Tuples in the form of (term x, relationship r, term y). For instance,

Denigma, is a kind of, Decipher Machine or

Aging, is a, Problem.

The basic Tasks in Ontology Development are Term Selection, Relationship Assignment and Evolution.

Normally an Ontology is developed by a small Group of Experts. However, this Approach does not scale with the ever increasing amount of Information. Specifically Experts have difficulty keeping up with Advances in Knowledge in the open dynamic World Wide Web Environment. Crowd Sourcing has the potential to be the most influential way to solve the problem of Ontology Development, by outsourcing a Task traditionally done by Experts to also non-Experts (typically a large Group of People) in the form of an open call (The Call of Duty).

An expression is correct if the majority of the users agree on it.

One approach to implement this is to aggregate Knowledge from common Web Users. Ontology can be used to redefine a Search Query [http://www.hahia.com] and in this way the Ontology evolves indirectly.

Definitely Crowd Sourcing will significantly change the Approach of Ontology Maintenance and Evolution.

An Ontology is a Data Model that represents a Domain and is utilized to reason both the Object in this Domain and the Relations between them. The application of Ontologies includes Artificial Intelligence, Semantic Web, Software Engineering and Information Architecture, where it is used as a form of Knowledge Representation about the World. An Ontology can also be understand as a set of Definitions of a formal Vocabulary with a huge potential in Information Technology.

Ontology is a Semantic skeleton of a Domain, i.e. it defines what we can have in Annotations. It defines Categories, Properties, Rules, etc. We can have many Ontologies to describe one Domain. It is only an Idea. We are not there.

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