The human body as well as that of other animals (Species) is highly structured into organs and tissues which serve specific functions. Tissue is the organizational level intermediate between cells and organs system which compose the whole organism. All the tissues and cell types defined in an animal organism are hierarchical structured and shall be fully described. o

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  • name description synonyms
    appendix The appendix (or vermiform appendix; also cecal (or caecal) appendix; also vermix) is a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum (or caecum), from which it develops embryologically. The cecum is a pouchlike structure of the colon. The appendix is located near the junction of the small intestine and the large intestine. The term "vermiform" comes from Latin and means "worm-shaped". It is widely present in the Euarchontoglires and has also evolved independently in the diprotodont marsupials and is highly diverse in size and shape [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vermiform_appendix]. vermiform appendix; cecal appendix; caecal appendix; vermix
    frontal lobe Front part of the brain; involved in planning, organizing, problem solving, selective attention, personality and a variety of higher cognitive functions including behavior and emotions [Brenda].
    parietal lobe The upper central lobe of the cerebral hemisphere, separated from the temporal lobe below by the lateral sulcus, but continuous at the posterior end of that sulcus, and separated from the frontal lobe by the central sulcus. Behind, it is continuous with the occipital lobe on the lateral surface, but separated from it by the parietooccipital sulcus on the medial surface [Brenda].
    temporal lobe One of the two parietal lobes of the brain located behind the frontal lobe at the top of the brain. Parietal Lobe, Right - Damage to this area can cause visuo-spatial deficits (for example, the patient may have difficulty finding their way around new, or even familiar, places). Parietal Lobe, Left - Damage to this area may disrupt a patient's ability to understand spoken and/or written language. The parietal lobes contain the primary sensory cortex which controls sensation (touch, pressure). Behind the primary sensory cortex is a large association area that controls fine sensation (judgment of texture, weight, size, shape) [Brenda].
    occipital lobe This lobe is located at the back of the head and is involved in vision and reading [Brenda].
    visual The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which enables organisms to process visual detail, as well as enabling several non-image forming photoresponse functions. It interprets information from visible light to build a representation of the surrounding world. The visual system accomplishes a number of complex tasks, including the reception of light and the formation of monocular representations; the construction of a binocular perception from a pair of two dimensional projections; the identification and categorization of visual objects; assessing distances to and between objects; and guiding body movements in relation to visual objects. The psychological manifestation of visual information is known as visual perception, a lack of which is called blindness. Non-image forming visual functions, independent of visual perception, include the pupillary light reflex (PLR) and circadian photoentrainment [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_system].
    insula In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (often called insula, insulary cortex or insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus between the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe. The cortical area overlying it towards the lateral surface of the brain is the operculum (meaning "lid"). The opercula are formed from parts of the enclosing frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. It is believed to be involved in consciousness. The insular cortex is divided into two parts: the larger anterior insula and the smaller posterior insula in which more than a dozen field areas have been identified. The insulae play a role in diverse functions usually linked to emotion or the regulation of the body's homeostasis. These functions include perception, motor control, self-awareness, cognitive functioning, and interpersonal experience. In relation to these it is involved in psychopathology [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insular_cortex]. insular cortex
    olfactory bulb A bulbous anterior projection of the olfactory lobe that is the place of termination of the olfactory nerves and is especially well developed in lower vertebrates (as fishes) [Brenda].
    anterior olfactory nucleus A portion of the forebrain of vertebrates. It is found behind the olfactory bulb and in front of the piriform cortex (laterally) and olfactory tubercle (medially) in a region often referred to as the olfactory peduncle or retrobulbar area. The peduncle contains the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) as well as two other much smaller regions, the tenia tecta (or dorsal hippocampal rudiment) and the dorsal peduncular cortex [Brenda].
    lateral olfactory stria The lateral olfactory stria is directed across the lateral part of the anterior perforated substance and then bends abruptly medialward toward the uncus of the hippocampal gyrus [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateral_olfactory_stria].
    medial olfactory stria The medial olfactory stria turns medialward behind the parolfactory area and ends in the subcallosal gyrus; in some cases a small intermediate stria is seen running backward to the anterior perforated substance [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medial_olfactory_stria].
    olfactory tubercle A small area of gray matter behind the olfactory trigone that is noted for receiving dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra and the reticular formation which have been implicated in schizoaffective disorders [Brenda].
    primary olfactory cortex The Primary olfactory cortex is a portion of the cortex involved in olfaction [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_olfactory_cortex].
    secondary olfactory cortex Brodmann's area 28; major gateway for neocortical input to the hippocampus; origin of the perforant pathway; a component of the medial temporal lobe memory system. (CSP) * The cytoarchitecturally well-defined area of multilaminate cerebral cortex on the medial aspect of the parahippocampal gyrus, immediately caudal to the olfactory cortex of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the hippocampus, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY (Stedman, 25th ed) (MSH) [NeuroLex: http://neurolex.org/wiki/Category:Secondary_olfactory_cortex]. secondary olfactory cortical area; area 28 of Brodmann; secondary olfactory areas
    hippocampus A curved elongated ridge that extends over the floor of the descending horn of each lateral ventricle of the brain and consists of gray matter covered on the ventricular surface with white matter;nThe hippocampus is a part of the temporal lobe, which has a well established role in learning, memory and emotion [Brenda].
    parahippocampal gyrus A long convolution on the medial surface of the temporal lobe, forming the lower part of the fornicate gyrus, extending from behind the splenium corporis callosi forward along the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus from which it is demarcated by the hippocampal fissure. The anterior extreme of the gyrus curves back upon itself, forming the uncus, the major location of the olfactory cortex [Brenda].
    claustrum The one of the four basal ganglia in each cerebral hemisphere that consists of a thin lamina of gray matter between the lentiform nucleus and the insula [Brenda].
    corpus striatum Either of a pair of masses of nervous tissue within the brain that contain two large nuclei of gray matter separated by sheets of white matter [Brenda].
    caudate nucleus One of the centrally-located portions of the brain affected by Huntington's Disease. Speech and swallowing problems arise when this region and another region called the putamen are affected [Brenda].
    lentiform nucleus The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus comprises the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia. It is a large, cone-shaped mass of gray matter just lateral to the internal capsule [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lentiform_nucleus].
    putamen The putamen is a round structure located at the base of the forebrain (telencephalon). The putamen and caudate nucleus together form the dorsal striatum. It is also one of the structures that comprises the basal ganglia. Through various pathways, the putamen is connected to the substantia nigra and globus pallidus. The main function of the putamen is to regulate movements and influence various types of learning. It employs dopamine to perform its functions. The putamen also plays a role in degenerative neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Putamen].
    globus pallidus The smaller and more medial part of the lentiform nucleus of the brain, separated from the putamen by the lateral medullary lamina. In official anatomic nomenclature, it is divided by the medial medullary lamina into two parts, lateral and medial, both of which have extensive connections with the corpus striatum, thalamus, and mesencephalon.nThe paleostriatum is the phylogenetically older part of the corpus striatum represented by the globus pallidus [Brenda].
    amygdala The one of the four basal ganglia in each cerebral hemisphere that is part of the limbic system and consists of an almond-shaped mass of gray matter in the anterior extremity of the temporal lobe [Brenda].
    anterior thalamic nuclei The anterior nuclei of thalamus (or anterior nuclear group) are a collection of nuclei at the rostral end of the dorsal thalamus [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anterior_nuclei_of_thalamus].
    anterior dorsal thalamic nucleus The anterior nuclei of thalamus (or anterior nuclear group) are a collection of nuclei at the rostral end of the dorsal thalamus [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anterior_nuclei_of_thalamus]. anterior nuclei of thalamus; anterior nuclear group
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