The human body as well as that of other animals (Species) is highly structured into organs and tissues which serve specific functions. Tissue is the organizational level intermediate between cells and organs system which compose the whole organism. All the tissues and cell types defined in an animal organism are hierarchical structured and shall be fully described. o

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  • name description synonyms
    colon The part of the large intestine that extends from the cecum to the rectum [Brenda].
    rectum The terminal part of the intestine from the sigmoid flexure to the anus [Brenda].
    seminal vesicle Either of a pair of glandular pouches that lie one on either side of the male reproductive tract and in the human male secrete a sugar- and protein-containing fluid into the ejaculatory duct [Brenda].
    glans The glans (Latin for "acorn") is a vascular structure located at the tip of the penis in men or a homologous genital structure of the clitoris in women [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glans].
    foreskin In male human anatomy, the foreskin is a generally retractable double-layered fold of skin and mucous membrane that covers the glans penis and protects the urinary meatus when the penis is not erect. It is also described as the prepuce, a technically broader term that also includes the clitoral hood in women, to which the foreskin is embryonically homologous [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreskin].
    cervix The cervix (from the Latin cervix uteri, meaning "neck of the womb") is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall. Approximately half its length is visible with appropriate medical equipment; the remainder lies above the vagina beyond view. The cervix has an opening to allow sperm and menstrual fluid to move through [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervix].
    endometrium The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endometrium].
    myometrium The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ [Brenda].
    trophoblast A thin layer of ectoderm that forms the wall of many mammalian blastulas and functions in the nutrition and implantation of the embryo [Brenda].
    mammary gland The specialized accessory gland of the skin of female mammals that secretes milk. In the human female, it is a compound tubuloalveolar gland composed of 15 to 25 lobes arranged radially about the nipple and separated by connective and adipose tissue, each lobe having its own excretory (lactiferous) duct opening on the nipple. The lobes are subdivided into lobules, with the alveolar ducts and alveoli being the secretory portion of the gland [Brenda].
    cerebral cortex The surface layer of gray matter of the cerebrum that functions chiefly in coordination of sensory and motor information [Brenda].
    basal nuclei The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei of varied origin in the brains of vertebrates that act as a cohesive functional unit. They are situated at the base of the forebrain and are strongly connected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and other brain areas. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions, including voluntary motor control, procedural learning relating to routine behaviors or "habits" such as bruxism, eye movements, and cognitive, emotional functions. Currently popular theories implicate the basal ganglia primarily in action selection, that is, the decision of which of several possible behaviors to execute at a given time. Experimental studies show that the basal ganglia exert an inhibitory influence on a number of motor systems, and that a release of this inhibition permits a motor system to become active. The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basal_ganglia].
    thalamus The largest subdivision of the diencephalon that consists chiefly of an ovoid mass of nuclei in each lateral wall of the third ventricle and functions in the integration of sensory information [Brenda].
    metathalamus The metathalamus is a composite structure of the thalamus, consisting of the medial geniculate nucleus and the lateral geniculate nucleus [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metathalamus].
    epithalamus The caudal part of the roof and the adjoining lateral walls of the third ventricle of the diencephalon, comprising the habenular nuclei and their commissure, pineal body, and commissure of the epithalamus [Brenda].
    subthalamus The subthalamus is a part of the diencephalon. Its major part is the subthalamic nucleus. Functionally, it also encompasses the globus pallidus, which is topographically part of the telencephalon [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subthalamus].
    hypothalamus The ventral part of the diencephalon that forms the floor and part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle. Anatomically, it includes the preoptic area, optic tract, optic chiasm, mammillary bodies, tuber cinereum, infundibulum, and neurohypophysis, but for physiological purposes the neurohypophysis is considered a distinct structure. The hypothalamus may be divided into five regions or areas (area hypothalamica rostralis, area hypothalamica dorsalis, area hypothalamica intermedia, area hypothalamica lateralis and area hypothalamica posterior) or into three longitudinal zones (periventricular zone, medial zone, and lateral zone). The hypothalamic nuclei constitute that part of the corticodiencephalic mechanism that activates, controls and integrates the peripheral autonomic mechanisms, endocrine activity, and many somatic functions, e.g., a general regulation of water balance, body temperature, sleep, and food intake, and the development of secondary sex characteristics. The hypothalamus secretes vasopressin and oxytocin, which are stored in the pituitary, as well as many releasing factors (hypophysiotropic hormones), by means of which it exerts control over functions of the adenohypophysis [Brenda].
    midbrain The middle of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain [Brenda].
    pons A broad mass of chiefly transverse nerve fibers conspicuous on the ventral surface of the brain of man and lower mammals at the anterior end of the medulla oblongata [Brenda].
    medulla oblongata The part of the vertebrate brain that is continuous posteriorly with the spinal cord and that contains the centers controlling involuntary vital functions [Brenda].
    cerebellum cortex The thin gray surface layer of the cerebellum, consisting of an outer molecular layer or stratum moleculare, a single layer of purkinje cells (the ganglionic layer), and an inner granular layer or stratum granulosum [Biology-Online: http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Cerebellar_cortex]. cortex cerebelli; cerebellar cortex
    cerebellum nuclei Four accumulations of gray substance embedded in the white substance of the cerebellum, comprising the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii. (Dorland, 28th ed) [MeSH] dentate nucleus; nucleus dentatus; nucleus emboliformis; nucleus fastigii; Nucleus Globosus
    corpus callosum The great band of commissural fibers uniting the cerebral hemispheres of higher mammals including humans [Brenda].
    lateral ventricle An internal cavity in each cerebral hemisphere that consists of a central body and three cornua including an anterior one curving forward and outward, a posterior one curving backward, and an inferior one curving downward [Brenda].
    third ventricle The third ventricle (ventriculus tertius) is one of four connected fluid-filled cavities comprising the ventricular system within the human brain. It is a median cleft between the two thalami, and is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_ventricle].
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